Project Status

Project Type:  Dug Well and Hand Pump

Regional Program: Southeastern Kenya WaSH Program

Impact: 500 Served

Project Phase:  In Service - Feb 2014

Functionality Status:  Functional

Last Checkup: 12/22/2022

Project Features

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Community Profile

This project is being implemented by our partner African Sand Dam Foundation, and includes the construction of a hand-dug well.

Kithaayoni self help group started in 2012.  The group has a membership of 36. The group was started for the purpose of searching water and conserving the environment and poverty reduction. The group member’s main current sources of livelihood are:

  • Subsistence farming
  • Livestock keeping
  • Poultry keeping


Water insecurity

Group main water sources are Kwa ndeti earth dam, Muuo wa kimaani borehole, Kwa musele earth dam and Athi river. The distances  of these 3.5 km, 3.5 km, 3km and 12km respectively. One takes 4-5 hours to fetch water during the dry period. The earth dams dry during this period hence we rely on the borehole and river Athi . At the borehole a 20 litre jerrican is sold ksh 6 which is not affordable to most of the community members. There long queues at the borehole hence forces others opt to fetch water from Athi river. The livestock are severely affected by water shortage because the distance to is river Athi which is far hence they skip some days without water. This makes some of them to die and others have poor health. During this dry period low hygienic standards are experienced because people fetch water for drinking and cooking. Also school attendance drops if the children fail to take water to school.

Food Security

The farmers are practising some farming practises such as intercropping, laying of terraces and use of manure in their farms. The following are the various crops they grow: maize, beans, cowpeas, dolichus, finger millet, sorghum, green grams and pigeon peas. Food security is low in this area and this is attributed to the following reasons.

  • Late planting. This has been caused by lack of timely access to seeds to plant. With small harvest people are not able to store some as seeds because they consume them.
  • Poor rainfall. For over the last four years more so we have been experiencing low rainfall in the area hence having poor harvest.
  • Poor seeds quality. For example like maize the seeds which we bought from the market were not drought resistant hence they needed a lot of rainfall
  •  Poor farming practices. The terraces are of low standard because washed away by rain water hence degrading soil quality in our farms.

Environmental Conservation

The farmers have planted the following trees in their farms: neem, eucalyptus and mango tree. Our main challenge to tree planting is lack of water and termite infestation and water problem.

Future Plans

  • Constructing sand dam. Sand dams will help us to solve water problem in the area. We use the water to plant vegetable for sale hence improving our income levels and save money for buying the vegetables.
  • Dairy goat project. This goats will enable us to increase milk production  in our homes
  • Seed support. This will enable us have enough and quality seeds hence there will no late planting.
  • Tools support. They will enable us to dig us to lay more terraces in our farms.



The shallow well is attached to Kithaayoni sand dam constructed in July 2013 with the support of The Water Project. Excavation of the shallow well and the collection of the local materials started on the September 9th, 2013 and completed on October 8th 2013.

Lining of the shallow well, which enables the installation of the hand pump started on October 9th, 2013 and completed on October 25th, 2013.The hand pump was not installed immediately due to heavy rains in the area. This resulted to a temporary delay and the pump was finally installed on December 28th and completed on December 31st, 2013.

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Project Photos

Project Type

Dug Well and Hand Pump

Hand-dug wells are best suited for clay, sand, gravel and mixed soil ground formations. A large diameter well is dug by hand, and then lined with either bricks or concrete to prevent contamination and collapse of the well. Once a water table is hit, the well is capped and a hand-pump is installed – creating a complete and enclosed water system.