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The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Flowing Water
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Flowing Water
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Flowing Water
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Flowing Water
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Flowing Water
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Flowing Water
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Flowing Water
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Flowing Water
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Flowing Water
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Sanitation Platform
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Sanitation Platform
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Sanitation Platform Construction
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Construction
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Spring Construction
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Spring Construction
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Spring Construction
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Spring Construction
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Spring Construction
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Foundation Construction
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Excavation
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Excavation
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Spring Care Training
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Water Handling Training
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Training
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Training
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Training
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Training
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Handwashing Training
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Handwashing Training
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Dental Hygiene Training
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Training
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Training
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Group Picture
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Group Discussions
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Dangerous Wooden Latrine Floor
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Carrying Water
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Fetching Water
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Current Water Source
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Community Farm
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Cow Grazing
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Typical Household
The Water Project: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring -  Typical Household

Project Status



Project Type:  Protected Spring

Regional Program: Western Kenya WaSH Program

Impact: 280 Served

Project Phase:  Installed - Apr 2019

Functionality Status:  Functional

Project Features


Click icons to learn about each feature.



Kakamega North sub-county is an area known for growing maize and sugarcane. And, it is also home to Mukangu Village.

Women here are tasked with household duties, including fetching water each day from the unprotected Lihungu Spring. The spring is a short walk for most of the 280 people who use it as their primary water source. A metal pipe was added to the source a few years ago – an attempt by the community to help make it easier to collect water.

However, it is still open to contamination since it was not protected properly. This puts people at risk of contracting waterborne diseases that lead children to miss school and parents to spend money treating themselves and their children.

The sanitation situation in the community also needs improvement. Nearly half of homes do not have latrines. Many of the latrines that exist are not in very good shape.

The place is so peaceful simply because it is a rural area away from town and factories. Maize, grown for consumption, and sugarcane, a cash crop, are visible throughout the community. They make the area look very green and attractive to the eye. Buildings in Mukangu Village are mostly semi-permanent, the walls are plastered with mud and roofed with iron sheets while others are made of bricks.

The community members in Mukangu Village usually wake up early in the morning. Women prepare breakfast for the family before engaging in the days’ activities such as fetching water, washing utensils, weeding, or harvesting. Men are often the breadwinners of their families. They will work casual labor jobs such as brick-making or weeding crops for larger farms.

Most families have at least a small plot of land that they also manage. They grow crops like maize, beans, cassava and sugarcane. Some will also rear cattle. Others own small-scale businesses and boda-boda riding (motorcycle taxi) to earn their living.

What we can do:

Training

“The hygiene and sanitation here is wanting; most of the families do not have compost pits for dumping rubbish, and the available pit latrines are in a bad state,” Mr. Elijah Lihungu told us during a visit to the community.

Community members will attend hygiene and sanitation training for at least two days. This training will ensure participants have the knowledge they need about healthy practices and their importance. The facilitator plans to use PHAST (Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation), CLTS (Community-Led Total Sanitation), ABCD (Asset-Based Community Development), group discussions, handouts, and demonstrations at the spring. One of the most important topics we plan to cover is the handling, storage, and treatment of water. Having a clean water source will be extremely helpful, but it is useless if water gets contaminated by the time it’s consumed. Handwashing will also be a big topic.

Training will also result in the formation of a committee that will oversee operations and maintenance at the spring. They will enforce proper behavior around the spring and delegate tasks that will help preserve the site, such as building a fence and digging proper drainage. The fence will keep out destructive animals, and the drainage will keep the area’s mosquito population at a minimum.

Sanitation Platforms

Sanitation facilities in Mukangu Village are mostly made of wooden logs for the floor while others have mud walls. These wooden floors are prone to rotting, which puts the users in danger of falling into the pit.

On the final day of training, participants will select five families that should benefit from new concrete latrine floors.

Training will also inform the community and selected families on what they need to contribute to make this project a success. They must mobilize locally available materials, such as bricks, clean sand, hardcore, and ballast. The five families chosen for sanitation platforms must prepare by sinking a pit for the sanitation platforms to be placed over. All community members must work together to make sure that accommodations and food are always provided for the work teams.

Spring Protection

Protecting the spring will ensure that the water is safe, adequate and secure. Construction will keep surface runoff and other contaminants out of the water. With the community’s high involvement in the process, there should be a good sense of responsibility and ownership for the new clean water source.

Fetching water is predominantly a female role, done by both women and young girls. Protecting the spring and offering training and support will, therefore, help empower the female members of the community by giving them more time and efforts to engage and invest in income-generating activities.

Project Updates


04/09/2019: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring Project Complete

Mukangu Community is celebrating their new protected spring, so celebrate with them! Lihungu Spring has been transformed into a flowing, safe source of water thanks to your donation. The spring is protected from contamination, five sanitation platforms have been provided for the community, and training has been done on sanitation and hygiene.

Spring Protection

Construction at Lihungu Spring was successful and water is now flowing from the discharge pipe.

It wasn’t without its challenges, though. The day work began at Lihungu Spring almost scared the artisan to death. While excavating the area for setting the foundation slab, the work team was invaded by bees that normally drink water from the spring. The beehive was just about 10 meters away from the spring. The artisans and community members who were assisting the artisans had to stop work for a while. After some time, they resumed work but had to cover their heads using arrowroot leaves. The beehive owner told the artisan and the other community members that they don’t need to worry because bee stings are harmless.

“The new water source is discharging cleaner and safer water than before. Even the drawing point now is so nice. No one has to step on mud to collect water anymore. Not to mention the structure itself that has attracted many people from far places who only come to see our spring. This shows that we are well-armed and we have won the battle of waterborne diseases,” said Mr. Elijah.

Plus now that the water source is protected, bees will no longer congregate and disturb those fetching water.

The Process:

Community members provided all locally available construction materials, e.g bricks, clean sand, wheelbarrows of ballast, and gravel. Community members also hosted our artisans for the duration of construction.

The spring area was excavated with jembes, hoes, and spades to create space for setting the foundation of polyethylene, wire mesh, and concrete.

After the base had been set, both wing walls and the headwall were set in place using brickwork. The discharge pipe was fixed low in place through the headwall to direct the water from the reservoir to the drawing area.

As the wing walls and headwall cured, the stairs were set and ceramic tiles were fixed directly below the discharge pipes.

The ceramic tiles installed under the discharge pipes protect the concrete from the erosive force of the falling water and beautifies the spring. The process of plastering the headwall and wing walls on both sides reinforces the brickwork and prevents water from the reservoir from seeping through the walls and allows pressure to build in the collection box to push water up through the discharge pipe.

The concrete dried over the course of five days, during which a community member wetted the concrete to make sure it would dry without cracking. The source area was filled up with clean stones and sand and covered with a polyethylene membrane to eliminate any potential sources of contamination.

We went as a team to meet the community at the spring to do an official handing over ceremony. With this spring now handed over to the community, we will continue to follow up with the water committee to make sure everything runs smoothly.

Sanitation Platforms

All five sanitation platforms have been installed and make wonderful, easy to clean latrine floors. These five families are happy about this milestone of having a latrine of their own. We are continuing to encourage families to finish building walls and roofs over their new latrine floors.

New Knowledge

We planned for training at Lihungu Spring with the help of our main contact person Mr. Elijah Lihungu. During the supervision of work, we informed him about the importance of hygiene and sanitation training. Mr. Lihungu assisted us greatly to recruit other community members to attend training.

On that day, it was sunny throughout the day. Though it was sunny, it did not affect our training because we held it at Elijah’s homestead under a homemade umbrella and some shade trees.

Participants learned about:

– Leadership and governance
– Management and maintenance of the spring
– Family planning
– Personal hygiene, including handwashing


– Dental hygiene
– Waterborne and water-related disease, along with water treatment methods

Participants were very involved in waterborne and water-related disease conversations. The facilitator led the community members through ways of preventing waterborne and water-related diseases. He went ahead and demonstrated how to treat water without the use of chemicals or firewood – mainly through solar disinfection. Nobody had ever heard that solar had purifying powers, so they were happy to adopt this economical method. They just need clear containers to take advantage of the sun!

Talking about how to properly handle water

“We are very grateful for today’s training. We have learned a lot of things which we didn’t know before, even though we are older than you people. Some of us had been storing drinking water for more than three days, which you recommended against. Even treating water using the sun is something new and we will adopt it because it’s so economical,” said Mrs. Balinyala.

Thank You for making all of this possible!


The Water Project : 28-kenya19090-flowing-water


02/06/2019: Mukangu Community, Lihungu Spring Project Underway

Dirty water from Lihungu Spring is making people in Mukangu Community sick. Thanks to your generosity, we’re building a clean water point and much more.

Get to know this community through the narrative and pictures we’ve posted, and read about this water, sanitation and hygiene project. We look forward to reaching out with more good news!


The Water Project : 6-kenya19090-fetching-water


Project Photos


Project Type

Protected Spring

In many communities, natural springs exist as water flows from cracks in rocky ground or the side of a hill.  Springs provide reliable water but that doesn’t mean safe. When left open they become contaminated by surface contamination, animal and human waste and rain runoff. The solution is to protect the source. First, you excavate around the exact source area of the spring. Then, you build a protective reservoir for water flow, which leads to a concrete spring box and collection area. Safe water typically flows year-round and there is very limited ongoing maintenance needed!



Contributors

The Roney Family Foundation