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The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Celebrating The Spring
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Collecting Water
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Collecting Water
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Enjoying Water
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Enjoying Water
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Erick Carrying Water
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Field Officer Betty Majani Celebrates The New Spring
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Heading Home With Clean Water
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Thumbs Up At The Spring
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Washing Her Jerrycan Before Fetching Water
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Water Celebrations
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Complete Sanitation Platforms
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Complete Sanitation Platforms
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Complete Sanitation Platforms
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Erick
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Completed Spring
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Spring Access Area
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Gushing Water
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Clear Clean Water
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Masks On At The Spring
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Water User Committee Member After The Training
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  A Sample Homemade Leaky Tin For Handwashing
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Betty Majani Conducting Training
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Betty Teaches The Ten Handwashing Steps
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Handwashing Demonstration
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Handwashing Demonstration
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Handwashing Demonstration
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Handwashing Demonstration
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Homemade Mask Making Training
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Practicing Safe Distancing
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Site Maintenance Training
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Trainer Karen Covers Proper Mask Wearing
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Using Chlorine Training
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Fencing And Planting Grass
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Sanplat Construction
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Community Members Deliver Materials
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Unloading A Brick Delivery
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Mixing Cement
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Digging The Drainage Channel
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Site Excavation
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Laying Spring Foundation
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Laying Spring Foundation
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Wall Brickwork Brgins
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Pipe Setting
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Wall Construction
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Drawing Point Construction
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Water Escape Channels Covered By Sticks
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Stairs Construction
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Rub Wall Construction
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Plaster Works
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Stair Plaster
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Tile Setting
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Backfilling With Clay
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Backfilling With Stones
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Backfilling With Stones As Clean Water Begins To Flow
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Laying Pvc Tarp
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Backfilling With Soil
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Water Storage Containers
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  A Sample Household In The Community
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  A Woman Shows Her Bathing Shelter With A Handwashing Point
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Animals Grazing
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Banana Plantation
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Beatrice Inside Her Kitchen
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Beatrice Malesi Soita
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Beatrice Outside Her Latrine
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Carrying Water
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Carrying Water Home
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Carrying Water Home
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Cattle Feeding Trough
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Collecting Water At Luyingo Spring
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Collecting Water At Luyingo Spring
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Collecting Water At Luyingo Spring
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Collecting Water At Luyingo Spring
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Collecting Water At Luyingo Spring
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Collecting Water At Luyingo Spring
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Community Children
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Community Member At Her Latrine
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Community Members At The Spring
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Cooking
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Dishrack
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Faith Mainja
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Faith Washes Dishes
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Handwashing Teamwork
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Hanging Clothes To Dry
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Kids Outside A Kitchen
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Looking Out At The Spring Area
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Luyingo Spring Water Point
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Outside Her Latrine
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Showing Her Bathing Shelter
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Timothy
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Traditional Compound
The Water Project: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring -  Water Containers And Laundry Underway

Project Status



Project Type:  Protected Spring

Regional Program: Western Kenya WaSH Program

Impact: 280 Served

Project Phase:  In Service - Dec 2020

Functionality Status:  Functional

Last Checkup: 03/10/2021

Project Features


Click icons to learn about each feature.



Please note: original photos were taken before the COVID-19 pandemic.

Luyingo Spring is found in a very remote area. Farmers ferry their goods to the Butali market, and a majority of people live in houses made of mud walls, iron sheet roofs, and doors made of timber.

For the 280 people who depend on Luyingo Spring for their daily water needs, the spring has quite a few problems. First, it is completely open, resembling a muddy puddle more than anything. The area around it is slippery and muddy, and the rains increase the problematic terrain and contaminated water.

To fetch water, people have to toe up to the water, sometimes stepping into it either by accident or because they have to in order to reach enough water to fill their containers. They typically scoop water with a small cup into their larger jerrycans, which takes a lot of time. Add in the breaks people try to allow between water users to help the water settle of sand and dirt, and there end up being many hours wasted at the spring each day.

The added wait time goes hand in hand with large crowds, which some try to avoid by going to fetch water very early in the morning. It seems they always have to wait in one crowd or another, however, which is particularly problematic during the pandemic when people are trying to avoid large gatherings and time spent in public. The groups and frustration at the spring also lead to disputes between families, disrupting the unity neighbors long for.

“There is normally overcrowding at the spring and at times we need to wait for the elderly people to draw water first… it’s very discouraging,” reflected teenager Timothy.

Typhoid and amoeba are the most common water-related illnesses community members report after drinking water from Luyingo Spring. These cost money to treat, which drains families of their resources that could be better spent on other needs. It also keeps children home from school when they get sick.

“We have gone through a lot; both money and time have been lost [on this spring], but we thank God for your team that visited us and assured us that they will protect the spring. Forgotten are the days we were affected by waterborne diseases,” said 23-year-old farmer Faith Mainja, already imagining the better days ahead following the planned spring protection.

What We Can Do:

Spring Protection

Protecting the spring will help provide access to cleaner and safer water and reduce the time people have to spend to fetch it. Construction will keep surface runoff and other contaminants out of the water. With the community’s high involvement in the process, there should be a good sense of responsibility and ownership for the new clean water source.

Fetching water is a task predominantly carried out by women and young girls. Protecting the spring and offering training and support will, therefore, help empower the female members of the community by freeing up more of their time and energy to engage and invest in income-generating activities and their education.

Training on Health, Hygiene, COVID-19, and More

To hold trainings during the pandemic, we work closely with both community leaders and the local government to approve small groups to attend training. We ask community leaders to invite a select yet representative group of people to attend training who will then act as ambassadors to the rest of the community to share what they learn. We also communicate our expectations of physical distancing and wearing masks for all who choose to attend.

The training will focus on improved hygiene, health, and sanitation habits in this community. We will also have a dedicated session on COVID-19 symptoms, transmission routes, and prevention best practices.

With the community’s input, we will identify key leverage points where they can alter their practices at the personal, household, and community levels to affect change. This training will help to ensure participants have the knowledge they need about healthy practices and their importance to make the most of their water point as soon as water is flowing.

Our team of facilitators will use a variety of methods to train community members. Some of these methods include participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation, asset-based community development, group discussions, handouts, and demonstrations at the spring.

One of the most important issues we plan to cover is the handling, storage, and treatment of water. Having a clean water source will be extremely helpful, but it is useless if water gets contaminated by the time it is consumed. We and the community strongly believe that all of these components will work together to improve living standards here, which will help to unlock the potential for these community members to live better, healthier lives.

We will then conduct a small series of follow-up trainings before transitioning to our regularly scheduled support visits throughout the year.

Training will result in the formation of a water user committee, elected by their peers, that will oversee the operations and maintenance of the spring. The committee will enforce proper behavior around the spring and delegate tasks that will help preserve the site, such as building a fence and digging proper drainage channels. The fence will keep out destructive animals and unwanted waste, and the drainage will keep the area’s mosquito population at a minimum.

Sanitation Platforms

At the end of training, participants will select 5 families that should benefit from new concrete latrine floors called sanitation platforms. Training will inform the community and selected families on what they need to contribute to make this project a success. They must mobilize locally available materials, including bricks, clean sand, and gravel. The 5 families chosen for sanitation platforms must prepare by sinking a pit for the sanitation platforms to be placed over.

All community members must work together to make sure that accommodations and food are always provided for the work teams. The families will then be asked to complete their latrines by constructing a superstructure over their platforms. These 5 sanitation platforms will then serve as examples for the rest of the community to replicate.

Project Updates


12/08/2020: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring Project Complete!

Makale Community now has access to clean water! Luyingo Spring has been transformed into a flowing source of water thanks to your donation. We protected the spring, constructed five sanitation platforms for different households in the community, and trained the community on improved sanitation and hygiene practices, including COVID-19 prevention.

Field Officer Betty gives thumbs up for flowing water at completed Luyingo Spring

“Now it’s easy to fetch, and the water is also clean. We no longer fear using water, as in the past, when we were worried that evil-minded people living around could do anything to harm the entire community since the source was open,” said Joseph Adisa, a farmer in the community.

“Initially, before the spring was protected, I fell sick as a result of drinking dirty water. I could spend a lot of money on medication treating typhoid. Since the spring is protected, I anticipate no more suffering,” Joseph added.

Children were just as excited as the adults about the new water point.

“It will save me time because, initially, I could come and wait for the water to clear up before drawing. Sometimes the drawing jug would be stolen, thus drawing became a challenge” and wasted more time, teenager Clare explained.

“When we resume school after COVID-19, the issue of not being at school will not arise because our spring is now protected, and we have clean and safe water. I will no longer waste my precious time at the spring.”

Preparing for Spring Protection

Community members worked together to source and carry all locally available construction materials to the spring. These included bricks, sand, stones, and fencing poles. Some people also chiseled away at large stones to break them down into gravel. Because people have to carry most items by hand, the materials collection process can take anywhere from a few weeks to months.

When everything was prepared, we sent a lorry to the community to deliver the rest of the construction materials, including the cement, plastic tarps, and hardware. Then, our artisan and field officers deployed to the spring to begin work. Everyone traveled to and from the work site each day throughout the construction process, so individual households provided meals throughout the day to sustain the workers.

Community members deliver bricks to the spring construction site

The last step before construction commenced was taking a water sample from the unprotected spring. We sent the sample to a government laboratory for testing to identify the kinds of contaminants in the water before its protection. These often include fertilizers and pesticides from farms, animal and human feces, and any number of harmful bacteria. We then shared the test results with the community to identify extra steps they could take to help ensure the spring’s water remains clean and safe after protection.

From Open Source to Protected Spring: A Step-by-Step Process

At last, it was time to dig in at the spring! Women and men lent their strength to the artisan each day to help with the manual labor. First, we cleared and excavated the spring area. We dug a drainage channel below the spring and several surface runoff diversion channels above and around the spring—this help to divert the environmental contaminants identified in the pre-construction water quality test.

Excavation of the spring site

To ensure community members could still fetch water throughout the construction process, we also dug temporary diversion channels from the spring’s eye around the construction site. This allowed water to flow without severely disrupting community members’ water needs or construction work.

Pouring the spring’s foundation

Excavation created space for setting the spring’s foundation made of thick plastic tarp, wire mesh, concrete, and waterproof cement. After setting the base, we started brickwork to build the headwall, wing walls, and stairs.

Brickwork begins on the spring walls

Next, we began one of the most crucial spring protection steps to ensure a fully functional water point: setting the discharge pipe. The discharge pipe has to be set low enough in place in the headwall so that the water level inside never rises above the spring’s eye, yet high enough to leave 18-20 inches between the pipe and the spring floor to allow room for the average jerrycan (a 20-liter container) to sit beneath the pipe without making contact.

Setting the pipe

If the discharge pipe were placed too high above the spring’s eye, too much backpressure could force the flow to emerge elsewhere. Too low, and community members would not be able to access the water easily. We embedded the pipe using clay (or mortar when the clay is in short supply) and placed it at a slight incline to ensure water flows in the right direction.

Building the rub walls

In coordination with brickwork, we pitched medium to large stones on both sides of the spring’s drainage channel. We then cemented and plastered each stone group into place, forming the rub walls. These help to discourage people and animals from trying to stand on that area, which could cause soil erosion and thus a clogged drainage area.

Plastering the stairs

With brickwork and stone pitching completed, we turned to cement and plaster both sides of the headwall and wing walls. This reinforces the brickwork and prevents water in the reservoir from seeping through the walls. In turn, this builds enough pressure in the reservoir box to push water out through the discharge pipe.

Backfilling with clay

As the headwall and wing walls were curing, we cemented and plastered the stairs and installed 4 tiles beneath the discharge pipe. The tiles protect the concrete from the falling water’s erosive force, beautify the spring, and facilitate easy cleaning of the spring floor.

Laying the tarp over the stone backfill layer

We transitioned to the final stages of construction with the tiles in place – backfilling the reservoir box. First, we cleared the collection box of any debris that may have fallen in since its construction, such as dead leaves or other items. Then we redirected the temporary diversion channels back into the reservoir box, channeling water into this area for the first time. We closed off all of the other exits to start forcing the water through the discharge pipe only.

Backfilling with soil and leveling the area

With much help from the community, we filled up the reservoir area with the clean and large stones they gathered, arranging them in layers like a well-fitting puzzle. We covered the stones with a thick plastic tarp to minimize potential contamination sources from aboveground, followed by a layer of soil. We piled enough soil on top to create a slight mound to compensate for the backfill’s future settlement.

Fencing and planting grass

Community members transplanted grass onto the backfilled soil to help prevent erosion. Finally, the collection area was fenced to discourage any person or animal from walking on it since compaction can lead to disturbances in the backfill layers and potentially compromise water quality.

The completed spring

The entire construction process took about 2 weeks of work and patience to allow the cement and plaster to finish curing. As soon as it was ready, people got the okay from our field officers to fetch water. We celebrated and handed over the spring to the community members directly following training. Happiness, thanksgiving, and appreciation were the order of the day, flowing in all directions.

Clean water gushes from Luyingo Spring

Sanitation Platforms

All five sanitation platforms have been completed and handed over to their new owners. These five families are happy about this milestone of having a private latrine of their own and are optimistic that people will no longer leave waste outdoors. We are continuing to encourage families to finish building walls and roofs over their new latrine floors, and for other families to replicate the design after having helped construct these examples.

A woman stands on a new sanitation platform

Training on Health, Hygiene, COVID-19 and More

Due to the ongoing challenges and restrictions amidst the pandemic, we worked with both local leaders and the national Ministry of Health to gain approval for a small group training about health, hygiene, and COVID-19 prevention.

Together with the community, we found their preferred date for training while considering other community calendar events such as the agricultural season and the national coronavirus-related curfew. We requested a select yet representative group of community members to attend training, relaying the information learned to the rest of their family and friends. When the day arrived, facilitators Betty Muhongo and Karen Maruti
deployed to the site to lead the event.

Trainer Betty leads a training session about site maintenance at the spring

41 people attended training, including local leaders and the community health volunteer. We held the training close to the spring so that we could save time during practical demonstrations. This aided our ability to keep to the local COVID-19 regulation that community visitors must leave within one hour of arriving.

Perhaps the most important topic of the day was our session on COVID-19 prevention and specific guidance in line with national and international standards. There has been tension and panic about the coronavirus in Kenya, so this was a session everyone eagerly participated in, the trainers noted.

Betty teaches the ten steps of handwashing

We covered:

– Information on the symptoms and transmission routes of COVID-19

– What physical distancing is and how to practice it

– How to cough and sneeze into the elbow

– Contactless greetings

– How to make and properly wear a facemask

Homemade face mask tutorial

Due to the rampant spread of misinformation about COVID-19, we dedicated time to a question and answer session to help debunk rumors about the disease and provide extra information where needed. We also left behind a rice sack painted with messages of COVID-19 prevention reminders in the local language. We affixed the sign to the spring’s fence during training and encouraged community members to use it as a daily reminder to stay cautious both at home and at the spring.

Using a homemade leaky tin for handwashing at the spring

“With this knowledge, our families are safe because we have been taught how to make our own masks and how to wash hands. Most of us had improvised handwashing stations within our compounds, but now we shall ensure that social distance is observed everywhere we go. Everyone is requested to put on a mask now that they can make their own,” said Antony Mulupi, a young farmer in the community.

Handwashing demonstration

We covered several other topics, including community participation in the project; leadership and governance; personal and environmental hygiene; water handling and treatment; operation and maintenance of the spring and sanitation platforms; dental hygiene; the ten steps of handwashing, and how to make and use a tippy tap and leaky tin. We held an election for the newly formed water user committee leaders during the leadership and governance session.

Trainer Karen stresses the importance of pulling your mask above your nose for it to be effective.

We also brainstormed income-generating activities that can be used to start both community savings account for any future minor repairs to the spring and a cooperative lending group to enable members to develop their own small businesses.

“The water, sanitation, and hygiene training have opened our eyes in terms of understanding more about the prevention of waterborne diseases and the coronavirus. This will enhance our good health,” shared Mathew Lutungu, the newly elected chair of the spring’s water user committee.

Masks on and thumbs up at the spring

When an issue arises concerning the water project, the water user committee is equipped with the necessary skills to rectify the problem and ensure the water point works appropriately.

Having fun at the spring

However, if the issue is beyond their capabilities, they can contact our field officers’ team to assist them. We will also continue to offer them unmatchable support as a part of our ongoing monitoring and maintenance program.

Thank you for making all of this possible!


The Water Project : kenya20196-collecting-water-4


11/19/2020: Makale Community, Luyingo Spring Project Underway!

Dirty water from Luyingo Spring is making people in Makale sick. Thanks to your generosity, we’re working to install a clean water point and much more.

Get to know this community through the narrative and pictures we’ve posted, and read about this water, sanitation, and hygiene project. We look forward to reaching out with news of success!


The Water Project : kenya20196-collecting-water-at-luyingo-spring-2


Project Photos


Project Type

Protected Spring

In many communities, natural springs exist as water flows from cracks in rocky ground or the side of a hill.  Springs provide reliable water but that doesn’t mean safe. When left open they become contaminated by surface contamination, animal and human waste and rain runoff. The solution is to protect the source. First, you excavate around the exact source area of the spring. Then, you build a protective reservoir for water flow, which pours through a reinforced pipe in a concrete headwall to a paved collection area. Safe water typically flows year-round and there is very limited ongoing maintenance needed!


Contributors

Project Underwriter - In Loving Memory of Omar Abu Salah
Mitch Brownlie, Brisbane, Australia
thecrossau.co
1 individual donor(s)