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The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Landowner
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Spring Celebration
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Child At Completed Spring
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Children Posing At The Spring
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Clean Water Flowing
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Clean Water Ready For Use
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Drinking Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Enjoying Clean Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Fetching Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Fetching Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Fetching Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Happy Collecting Clean Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Headed Home With Clean Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Making A Splash
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Making A Splash
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Mounting Water On Her Head
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Posing At The Water Point
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Priscilla At The Completed Spring
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Protected Livaha Spring
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Happy Slab Owner
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Happy Sanplat Owner
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Priscilla
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Mr Charles Muhuyi
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Tying Leaky Tin On A Tree
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Coughing Into The Elbow
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Field Officer Christine Demonstrates Leaky Tin Construction
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Handout With Covid Information
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Handwashing
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Handwashing
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Handwashing Demonstration
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Introducing Water User Committee Leaders
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Introducing Water User Committee Leaders
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Man Shares Thanks For The
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Margaret Muruya
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Mask Making And Proper Wearing
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Mask Making
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Participant Noting Down Points
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Practicing Handwashing Steps
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Serving Participants Food
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Site Maintenance Training
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Training Complete
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Sanitation Platform Construction
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Community Mobilizing Materials
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Mixing Stones And Sand
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Drainage Opening
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Excavation
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Pouring The Foundation
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Wall Construction
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Pipe Setting
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Spring Construction Site
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Wing Wall Construction
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Stair Construction
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Rub Wall Construction
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Plaster Works
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Plastering Interior Headwall
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Protecting Plaster From Oncoming Rainfall
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Rub Wall Plaster
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Tile Setting
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Field Officer Christine And Artisan Enjoy A Tea Break
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Backfilling With Stones
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Backfilling With Stones
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Laying The Tarp
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Backfilling With Soil
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Grass Planting
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Spring Fencing
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Digging Cut Off Drainage
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Children Fetching Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Collecting Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Fetching Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Storage Containers
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Water Storage
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Carrying Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Carrying Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Carrying Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  It Takes A Whole Community
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Ms Ondiso Heading To The Water Point
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Community Members At The Spring Collecting Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Community Members Heading To Fetch Water
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Standing Next To Her Bathing Shelter
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  A Bed Inside A Home
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Anne Andeso
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Banana Plantation
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Children Playing
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Cleaning A Compound
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Clothes Drying
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Cooking Area
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Cow
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Dishrack
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Drying Clothes
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Ducks
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Goats Resting
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Grazing Cow
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Handwshing
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Improvised Hanging Dishrack
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Inside Her Kitchen
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Latrine Sample
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Latrine
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Mama Fridah At Her Latrine
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Mama Fridah Inside Her Kitchen
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Mama Fridah Outside Her Home
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Mama Fridah Outside The Kitchen
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Next To Her Bathing Room
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Pepper Farm
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Playing On Open Fields
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Robert Aspira
The Water Project: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring -  Sample Dishrack

Project Status



Project Type:  Protected Spring

Regional Program: Western Kenya WaSH Program

Impact: 280 Served

Project Phase:  In Service - Dec 2020

Functionality Status:  Functional

Last Checkup: 10/19/2021

Project Features


Click icons to learn about each feature.



Please note: original photos were taken before the COVID-19 pandemic.

Most people living in Lukala C Community are small-scale framers who grow crops like maize, beans, cassava, and who also practice dairy farming. The buildings are constructed in the traditional way, with mud walls and grass-thatched roofs. A few families also have modern houses. The roads were not that bad at the time of writing, but during heavy rains they are impassable.

Around Livaha Spring, there is a lot of green vegetation due to the spring’s persistence even through the dry season. The 280 people who depend on it for water know this, and have done their best to improve the water point on their own. But they have had little success.

Community members improvised a discharge pipe by sticking an iron sheet directly into the earth to help the water come out in a spout. But heavy rains frequently wash the sheet away, forcing community members to scoop water with a jug. This wastes a lot of precious time because the water gets dirty with each scoop, so people try to scoop slowly yet surely. Then, between people, they wait as long as they can to let the water settle.

During such times, women are forced to wake up to get to the spring as early as 5:30 am to try to fetch the cleanest water with the least people. But there always seems to be a crowd, which is especially concerning during the pandemic when people are trying to avoid groups and limit their time in public.

The management of the spring is unique in that it is headed by 2 administrators, 1 from each of the villages the spring straddles: Lukala B and Lukala C. But there is no dispute between the 2 villages or administrators, people report. They have always lived in peace, love, and unity, are they stand together in helping to gain access to clean, safe water at Livaha Spring.

The main problem with the spring is that it sits open to contamination from surface run-off, which carries with it dangerous farm chemicals and animal waste. The runoff can also contain human waste, as a lack of latrines forces many people here to practice open defecation. These toxins are in addition to the dirt, rust from the iron sheet, and insects and parasites that live in the water.

“We have suffered for a long time,” said 64-year-old farmer Charles Muhuyi Kokoyo. “A lot of money has been spent on medication because of this dirty water.”

The time people spend at the spring trying to take the least contaminated water possible also costs them in other ways. Adults lose time at work, whether on their farms or otherwise, and kids miss school lessons when they are sick.

“We have not been able to attend school frequently because of waterborne diseases that have been recurring every time we drink this water,” said secondary school student Jemimah.

What We Can Do:

Spring Protection

Protecting the spring will help provide access to cleaner and safer water and reduce the time people have to spend to fetch it. Construction will keep surface runoff and other contaminants out of the water. With the community’s high involvement in the process, there should be a good sense of responsibility and ownership for the new clean water source.

Fetching water is a task predominantly carried out by women and young girls. Protecting the spring and offering training and support will, therefore, help empower the female members of the community by freeing up more of their time and energy to engage and invest in income-generating activities and their education.

Training on Health, Hygiene, COVID-19, and More

To hold trainings during the pandemic, we work closely with both community leaders and the local government to approve small groups to attend training. We ask community leaders to invite a select yet representative group of people to attend training who will then act as ambassadors to the rest of the community to share what they learn. We also communicate our expectations of physical distancing and wearing masks for all who choose to attend.

The training will focus on improved hygiene, health, and sanitation habits in this community. We will also have a dedicated session on COVID-19 symptoms, transmission routes, and prevention best practices.

With the community’s input, we will identify key leverage points where they can alter their practices at the personal, household, and community levels to affect change. This training will help to ensure participants have the knowledge they need about healthy practices and their importance to make the most of their water point as soon as water is flowing.

Our team of facilitators will use a variety of methods to train community members. Some of these methods include participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation, asset-based community development, group discussions, handouts, and demonstrations at the spring.

One of the most important issues we plan to cover is the handling, storage, and treatment of water. Having a clean water source will be extremely helpful, but it is useless if water gets contaminated by the time it is consumed. We and the community strongly believe that all of these components will work together to improve living standards here, which will help to unlock the potential for these community members to live better, healthier lives.

We will then conduct a small series of follow-up trainings before transitioning to our regularly scheduled support visits throughout the year.

Training will result in the formation of a water user committee, elected by their peers, that will oversee the operations and maintenance of the spring. The committee will enforce proper behavior around the spring and delegate tasks that will help preserve the site, such as building a fence and digging proper drainage channels. The fence will keep out destructive animals and unwanted waste, and the drainage will keep the area’s mosquito population at a minimum.

Sanitation Platforms

At the end of the training, participants will select 5 families that should benefit from new concrete latrine floors called sanitation platforms. Training will inform the community and selected families on what they need to contribute to make this project a success. They must mobilize locally available materials, including bricks, clean sand, and gravel. The 5 families chosen for sanitation platforms must prepare by sinking a pit for the sanitation platforms to be placed over.

All community members must work together to make sure that accommodations and food are always provided for the work teams. The families will then be asked to complete their latrines by constructing a superstructure over their platforms. These 5 sanitation platforms will then serve as examples for the rest of the community to replicate.

Project Updates


12/14/2020: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring Project Complete!

Lukala C Community now has access to clean water! Livaha Spring has been transformed into a flowing source of water thanks to your donation. We protected the spring, constructed five sanitation platforms for different households in the community, and trained the community on improved sanitation and hygiene practices, including COVID-19 prevention.

Women celebrate completed Livaha Spring

"We have been taking dirty water from the spring, which frequently caused waterborne and water-related diseases. Given that I have a very big family of more than 25 (both adults and children), much has been spent buying drugs and hospital bills. Now that we can access clean and safe water, these illnesses will be eliminated," said Charles Muhuyi, a 64-year-old farmer in the community.

"Now that we have clean water, we will be able to maintain good hygiene to curb the spread of COVID-19 and other hygiene-related diseases. A lot of time was spent at the spring, but now it's easier and faster to fetch water, so the time that we wasted before will be used on other income-generating activities like farming and businesses."

Fetching water from the spring

Children were just as excited as the adults about the new water point.

"With the availability of clean and safe water, we will be able to maintain improved sanitation and hygiene and, as a result, reduce the risk of diseases like typhoid, diarrhea, and malaria," noted young teenager Priscilla.

"In our school, we have a TWP-funded water harvesting tank that supplies us with safe and clean water for drinking. I am happy that we have clean water at home now too. We will no longer suffer from illnesses, giving us more time in class and improving on our performance in school."

Priscilla at the spring

"This is one of the most organized groups I have ever worked with," reported Lead Field Officer for the project Christine Masinde.

"They worked really hard to make sure that the project was successful. They appreciated the love that was portrayed to them through the protection of their spring and the provision of sanitation platforms."

"God bless you so much for the kind gesture to our community, said Charles Muhuyi, our main coordinator between his community and our team.

"Our water is now clean and safe for drinking and other uses. Continue with the good work you are doing as you serve other communities!"

Preparing for Spring Protection

Community members worked together to source and carry all locally available construction materials to the spring. These included bricks, sand, stones, and fencing poles. Some people also chiseled away at large stones to break them down into gravel. Because people have to carry most items by hand, the materials collection process can take anywhere from a few weeks to months.

When everything was prepared, we sent a lorry to the community to deliver the rest of the construction materials, including the cement, plastic tarps, and hardware. Then, our artisan and field officers deployed to the spring to begin work. Everyone traveled to and from the work site each day throughout the construction process, so individual households provided meals throughout the day to sustain the workers.

Community members and Field OFficer Christine mobilizing local construction materials

The last step before construction commenced was taking a water sample from the unprotected spring. We sent the sample to a government laboratory for testing to identify the kinds of contaminants in the water before its protection. These often include fertilizers and pesticides from farms, animal and human feces, and any number of harmful bacteria. We then shared the test results with the community to identify extra steps they could take to help ensure the spring’s water remains clean and safe after protection.

From Open Source to Protected Spring: A Step-by-Step Process

At last, it was time to dig in at the spring! Women and men lent their strength to the artisan each day to help with the manual labor. First, we cleared and excavated the spring area. We dug a drainage channel below the spring and several surface runoff diversion channels above and around the spring—this help to divert the environmental contaminants identified in the pre-construction water quality test.

Excavation of the spring site

To ensure community members could still fetch water throughout the construction process, we also dug temporary diversion channels from the spring’s eye around the construction site. This allowed water to flow without severely disrupting community members’ water needs or construction work.

Pouring the spring's foundation

Excavation created space for setting the spring’s foundation made of thick plastic tarp, wire mesh, concrete, and waterproof cement. After setting the base, we started brickwork to build the headwall, wing walls, and stairs.

The artisan lays bricks while community members ferry them to the work site.

Next, we began one of the most crucial spring protection steps to ensure a fully functional water point: setting the discharge pipe. The discharge pipe has to be set low enough in place in the headwall so that the water level inside never rises above the spring’s eye, yet high enough to leave eighteen to twenty inches between the pipe and the spring floor to allow room for the average jerrycan (a 20-liter container) to sit beneath the pipe without making contact.

Setting the discharge pipe

If the discharge pipe were placed too high above the spring’s eye, too much backpressure could force the flow to emerge elsewhere. Too low, and community members would not be able to access the water easily. We embedded the pipe using clay (or mortar when the clay is in short supply) and placed it at a slight incline to ensure water flows in the right direction.

Plastering a rub wall

In coordination with brickwork, we pitched medium to large stones on both sides of the spring’s drainage channel. We then cemented and plastered each stone group into place, forming the rub walls. These help to discourage people and animals from trying to stand on that area, which could cause soil erosion and thus a clogged drainage area.

Plastering the stairs

With brickwork and stone pitching completed, we turned to cement and plaster both sides of the headwall and wing walls. This reinforces the brickwork and prevents water in the reservoir from seeping through the walls. In turn, this builds enough pressure in the reservoir box to push water out through the discharge pipe.

It was all hands on deck during the backfilling process

As the headwall and wing walls were curing, we cemented and plastered the stairs and installed four tiles beneath the discharge pipe. The tiles protect the concrete from the falling water's erosive force, beautify the spring, and facilitate easy cleaning of the spring floor.

Fitting the tarp to the backfilled catchment area

We transitioned to the final stages of construction with the tiles in place - backfilling the reservoir box. First, we cleared the collection box of any debris that may have fallen in since its construction, such as dead leaves or other items. Then we redirected the temporary diversion channels back into the reservoir box, channeling water into this area for the first time. We closed off all of the other exits to start forcing the water through the discharge pipe only.

Planting grass inside the spring's fencing

With much help from the community, we filled up the reservoir area with the clean and large stones they gathered, arranging them in layers like a well-fitting puzzle. We covered the stones with a thick plastic tarp to minimize potential contamination sources from aboveground, followed by a layer of soil. We piled enough soil on top to create a slight mound to compensate for the backfill’s future settlement.

Fencing and digging the cut-off drainage around the spring

Community members transplanted grass onto the backfilled soil to help prevent erosion. Finally, the collection area was fenced in to discourage any person or animal from walking on it since compaction can lead to disturbances in the backfill layers and potentially compromise water quality.

The entire construction process took about two weeks of work and patience to allow the cement and plaster to finish curing. As soon as it was ready, people got the okay from our field officers to fetch water. We officially handed over the spring directly following training. Happiness, thanksgiving, and appreciation were the order of the day, flowing in all directions.

Sanitation Platforms

All five sanitation platforms have been completed and handed over to their new owners. These five families are happy about this milestone of having a private latrine of their own and are optimistic that people will no longer leave waste outdoors.

Charles Muhuyi poses with his family's new sanitation platform

We are encouraging families to finish building walls and roofs over their new latrine floors and other families to replicate the design after having helped construct these examples.

A mother and son pose with their family's new sanitation platform

Training on Health, Hygiene, COVID-19 and More

Due to the ongoing challenges and restrictions amidst the pandemic, we worked with both local leaders and the national Ministry of Health to gain approval for a small group training about health, hygiene, and COVID-19 prevention.

Together with the community, we found the community’s preferred date for training while considering other events in the community calendar, such as the agricultural season and the national coronavirus-related curfew. We requested a select yet representative group of community members to attend training, relaying the information learned to the rest of their family and friends. When the day arrived, facilitators Christine Masinde and Rose Serete deployed to the site to lead the event.

Training participant shows the COVID-19 prevention pamphlet they received in Kiswahili

25 people attended training, including local leaders and a few teachers from nearby schools. We held the event at landowner Mr. Livaha's compound under the shade of trees. The location was conducive to physical distancing and nearby the spring for the practical sessions requiring water.

Christine teaches the ten steps of handwashing

Perhaps the most important topic of the day was our session on COVID-19 prevention and specific guidance in line with national and international standards. There has been tension and panic about the coronavirus in Kenya, so this was a session everyone eagerly participated in, the trainers noted. We covered:

- Information on the symptoms and transmission routes of COVID-19

- What physical distancing is and how to practice it

- How to cough and sneeze into the elbow

- Contactless greetings

- How to make and properly wear a facemask

A woman demonstrates handwashing using a leaky tin

Due to the rampant spread of misinformation about COVID-19, we dedicated time to a question and answer session to help debunk rumors about the disease and provide extra information where needed. We also left behind a rice sack painted with messages of COVID-19 prevention reminders in the local language. We affixed the sign to the spring's fence during training and encouraged community members to use it as a daily reminder to stay cautious both at home and at the spring.

Cough and sneeze using the elbow like this

The participants noted our team was the first to come to their community to sensitize them on COVID-19. As a result, they were keen to learn more about the prevention and control of the virus. Many people asked questions to seek clarification about the realities and rumors surrounding COVID-19.

Taking notes at training

"This training is very valuable to us, especially at this time when there is a fear of the spread of COVID-19. I have been educating my fellow community members about ways to prevent COVID-19, but some could not take it seriously because they think coronavirus is only in major towns. Your emphasis on how it is transmitted and prevented has enlightened them, and I am sure they will make sure that they keep physical distance, wear masks, and wash hands properly. I will also continue spreading what I have learned to other community members," said Robert Kokoyo, who works as a school teacher and whose peers elected him as a member of the water user committee.

Everyone practices the ten steps of handwashing

"Most homes have leaky tins, but people don't wash their hands as frequently as it is recommended. People only wear masks for fear of being arrested by the police, but now after the training, we know it's for our own good so that we can not be victims of COVID-19."

"Washing hands frequently with soap using the ten steps will be practiced religiously since we don't wish anyone to be affected by the virus. General body and environmental hygiene are also important to avoid diseases including diarrhea and COVID-19," Robert said.

Site maintenance session at the spring with Trainer Christine

We covered several other topics, including community participation in the project; leadership and governance; personal and environmental hygiene; water handling and treatment; operation and maintenance of the spring and sanitation platforms; dental hygiene; the ten steps of handwashing, and how to make and use a tippy tap and leaky tin. We held an election for the newly formed water user committee leaders during the leadership and governance session.

We also brainstormed income-generating activities that can be used to start both a community savings account for any future minor repairs to the spring and a cooperative lending group to enable members to develop their own small businesses.

"This training has come in handy, especially for us women who are in charge of general hygiene in our homes and fetching water. My family members and I have been washing hands the wrong way - that is why we fall sick quite often from infections. I will make sure we practice what we have been taught so that we can lead a healthier life than before," said 22-year-old Margaret Muruya, whose peers elected her as Water User Committee Secretary.

"I have also learned how to make masks and how to wear them properly; this will prevent the spread of the virus. When schools open, I will make masks from locally available materials and supply them to my family members," Margaret added.

Christine leads the mask-making session

When an issue arises concerning the water project, the water user committee is equipped with the necessary skills to rectify the problem and ensure the water point works appropriately. However, if the issue is beyond their capabilities, they can contact our field officers' team to assist them. We will also continue to offer them unmatchable support as a part of our ongoing monitoring and maintenance program.

Thank you for making all of this possible!


The Water Project : kenya20247-spring-celebration


11/19/2020: Lukala C Community, Livaha Spring Project Underway!

Dirty water from Livaha Spring is making people in Lukala C sick. Thanks to your generosity, we’re working to install a clean water point and much more.

Get to know this community through the narrative and pictures we’ve posted, and read about this water, sanitation, and hygiene project. We look forward to reaching out with news of success!


The Water Project : kenya20247-children-fetching-water


Project Photos


Project Type

Protected Spring

In many communities, natural springs exist as water flows from cracks in rocky ground or the side of a hill.  Springs provide reliable water but that doesn’t mean safe. When left open they become contaminated by surface contamination, animal and human waste and rain runoff. The solution is to protect the source. First, you excavate around the exact source area of the spring. Then, you build a protective reservoir for water flow, which pours through a reinforced pipe in a concrete headwall to a paved collection area. Safe water typically flows year-round and there is very limited ongoing maintenance needed!


Contributors

Project Underwriter - Estate of Barteld Merema
3 individual donor(s)