Project Status

Project Type:  Protected Spring

Regional Program: Western Kenya WaSH Program

Impact: 147 Served

Project Phase:  In Service - Mar 2022

Functionality Status:  Functional

Last Checkup: 02/02/2024

Project Features

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Kharinda Spring is in the community of Manguliro, which is part of the western county of Kakamega, Kenya.

The community has large parcels of land and is predominantly known for growing sugar cane and raising dairy cattle.  The livelihood of community members varies: some farm crops of sugarcane or maize, others make bricks to sell, or raise animals.

The spring is used by the 147 community members as well as students from the nearby Manguliro Primary School. Most of the community members fetch water very early in the morning and in the evening, after work and school.

When it rains (which, in this region, is often - the wet season lasts around 8 months out of the year), it is difficult to access water because the area around the spring becomes muddy and slippery.

The water is prone to contamination from people, animals, and the dirty water containers used to draw water. Time, energy, and money are wasted obtaining medication and medical treatments to treat preventable water-borne diseases such as typhoid.

"We are tired of being sick and our children always being absent from school. Our health as a community is not good," said Patrick Kharinda, a local farmer.

Field Officer, Mary Afandi, noted that "typhoid has been the song in the community," and its medication is too expensive for some people to afford. Children miss school from stomachaches caused by dirty water and do not perform well in their academics after repeated absences.

"Sometimes I feel bad when I miss going to school. When I miss going to school because of typhoid, I realize I drop in my academic performance," said Cleophas S., 16.

What We Can Do:

Spring Protection

Protecting the spring will help provide access to cleaner and safer water and reduce the time people have to spend to fetch it. Construction will keep surface runoff and other contaminants out of the water. With the community’s high involvement in the process, there should be a good sense of responsibility and ownership for the new clean water source.

Fetching water is a task predominantly carried out by women and young girls. Protecting the spring and offering training and support will, therefore, help empower the female members of the community by freeing up more of their time and energy to engage and invest in income-generating activities and their education.

Training on Health, Hygiene, COVID-19, and More

To hold trainings during the pandemic, we work closely with both community leaders and the local government to approve small groups to attend training. We ask community leaders to invite a select yet representative group of people to attend training who will then act as ambassadors to the rest of the community to share what they learn. We also communicate our expectations of physical distancing and wearing masks for all who choose to attend.

The training will focus on improved hygiene, health, and sanitation habits in this community. We will also have a dedicated session on COVID-19 symptoms, transmission routes, and prevention best practices.

With the community’s input, we will identify key leverage points where they can alter their practices at the personal, household, and community levels to affect change. This training will help to ensure participants have the knowledge they need about healthy practices and their importance to make the most of their water point as soon as water is flowing.

Our team of facilitators will use a variety of methods to train community members. Some of these methods include participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation, asset-based community development, group discussions, handouts, and demonstrations at the spring.

One of the most important issues we plan to cover is the handling, storage, and treatment of water. Having a clean water source will be extremely helpful, but it is useless if water gets contaminated by the time it is consumed. We and the community strongly believe that all of these components will work together to improve living standards here, which will help to unlock the potential for these community members to live better, healthier lives.

We will then conduct a small series of follow-up trainings before transitioning to our regularly scheduled support visits throughout the year.

Training will result in the formation of a water user committee, elected by their peers, that will oversee the operations and maintenance of the spring. The committee will enforce proper behavior around the spring and delegate tasks that will help preserve the site, such as building a fence and digging proper drainage channels. The fence will keep out destructive animals and unwanted waste, and the drainage will keep the area’s mosquito population at a minimum.

Project Updates

March, 2022: Kharinda Spring Protection Complete!

Manguliro now has access to clean water! We transformed Kharinda Spring into a flowing source of water, thanks to your donation. Our team protected the spring and trained the community on improved sanitation and hygiene practices, including COVID-19 prevention.

Female farmer Philister Muyale, 39 said, "I will now take safe and clean water, which is reliable. The water will reduce cases of typhoid and diarrhea. I will use the water to water my vegetables during the dry season. I will not lack fresh vegetables. Lastly, it is easier and [more] convenient to fetch water from the protected spring."

Children were just as excited as the adults about the new water point.

Sydney, age 11.

"The protected spring will save my time after school because there will be no more queuing at the protected spring in order to draw water. I will use water to bathe and clean my uniforms. In addition, I will have enough time to do homework, hence improve my academic performance," said Sydney N.

Preparing for Spring Protection

Community members worked together to source and carry all locally available construction materials to the spring. These included bricks, sand, stones, and fencing poles. Some people also chiseled away at large rocks to break them down into gravel. Because people have to carry most items by hand, the materials collection process can take anywhere from a few weeks to months.

Clearing the construction site.

When the community members had prepared everything, we sent a lorry to the community to deliver the rest of the construction materials, including the cement, plastic tarps, and hardware. Then, our artisan and field officers deployed to the spring to begin work. Individual households provided meals throughout each day to sustain the work team.

From Open Source to Protected Spring: A Step-by-Step Process

At last, it was time to dig in at the spring! Locals lent their strength to the artisans each day to help with the manual labor. First, we cleared and excavated the spring area. Next, we dug a drainage channel below the spring and several surface runoff diversion channels above and around the spring. These help to divert environmental contaminants carried by the rains away from the spring.

Preparing the foundation.

To ensure community members could still fetch water throughout the construction process, we also dug temporary diversion channels from the spring's eye around the construction site. This allowed water to flow without severely disrupting community members' water needs or the construction work.

Excavation created space for setting the spring's foundation, which is made of thick plastic tarp, wire mesh, concrete, and waterproof cement. After setting the base, we started brickwork to build the headwall, wing walls, and stairs.

Next, we began one of the most crucial spring protection steps to ensure a fully functional water point: setting the discharge pipe. The discharge pipe has to be low enough in the headwall so that the water level inside never rises above the spring's eye, yet high enough to leave eighteen to twenty inches between the pipe and the spring floor. This allows room for the average jerrycan (a 20-liter container) to sit beneath the pipe without making contact.

If we place the discharge pipe too high above the spring's eye, too much backpressure could force the flow to emerge elsewhere. Too low, and community members would not be able to access the water easily. We embedded the pipe using clay (or mortar when clay is in short supply) and placed it at an incline to ensure water flows in the right direction.

In coordination with brickwork, we pitched medium to large stones on both sides of the spring's drainage channel. We then cemented and plastered each stone group into place, forming the rub walls. This helps discourage people and animals from standing in that area, which could cause soil erosion and thus a clogged drainage area.

We then turned to cementing and plastering both sides of the headwall and wing walls. These finishing layers reinforce the brickwork and prevent water in the reservoir from seeping through the walls. In turn, enough pressure builds in the reservoir box to push water out through the discharge pipe.

As the headwall and wing walls were curing, we cemented and plastered the stairs and installed four tiles beneath the discharge pipe. The tiles protect the concrete from the falling water's erosive force while beautifying the spring and facilitating easy cleaning of the spring floor.

We transitioned to the final stages of construction with the tiles in place - backfilling the reservoir box. First, we cleared the collection box of any debris that may have fallen in since its construction, such as dead leaves or other items. Then we redirected the temporary diversion channels back into the reservoir box, channeling water into this area for the first time. We closed off all of the other exits to start forcing the water through the discharge pipe only.


With much help from the community, we filled up the reservoir area with the clean and large stones they gathered, arranging them in layers like a well-fitting puzzle. We covered the rocks with a thick plastic tarp to minimize potential contamination sources from aboveground, followed by a layer of soil. We piled enough dirt on top to create a slight mound to compensate for the backfill's future settlement.

Community members transplanted grass onto the backfilled soil to help prevent erosion. Finally, the collection area was fenced to discourage any person or animal from walking on it since compaction can lead to disturbances in the backfill layers and potentially compromise water quality.

The entire construction process took about two weeks of work and patience to allow the cement and plaster to finish curing. As soon as it was ready, people got the okay from our field officers to fetch water. We officially handed over the spring to mark the community's ownership of the water point. The women danced and sang songs to celebrate the community's safe access to clean water and thank God. Happiness, thanksgiving, and appreciation were the order of the day, flowing in all directions.

Training on Health, Hygiene, COVID-19, and More

Due to the ongoing challenges and restrictions amidst the pandemic, we worked with local leaders and the national Ministry of Health to gain approval for a small group training about health, hygiene, and COVID-19 prevention.

Together with the community, we found their preferred date for training while considering other community calendar events, such as the agricultural season and social events. We requested a representative group of community members to attend training to relay the information learned to the rest of their family and friends.

When the day arrived, facilitators Mary Afandi and Rose Amulavu deployed to the site to lead the event. 11 people attended the training, including village health trainers. We held the training under trees on the homestead of Patrick Kalenda, the spring's namesake.

Opening the training time with a prayer.

Attendance was not as expected with fewer participants because of a community funeral and the community's men needing to work on their farms.

Perhaps the most crucial topic of the day was our session on COVID-19 prevention and control. Due to the rampant spread of misinformation about COVID-19, we dedicated time to a question and answer session to help debunk rumors about the virus and provide extra information where needed.

We covered several other topics, including community participation in the project; leadership and governance; personal and environmental hygiene; water handling and treatment; operation and maintenance of the spring; dental hygiene; the ten steps of handwashing; and how to make and use a tippy tap and leaky tin. In addition, we held an election for the newly formed water user committee leaders during the leadership and governance session.

We also brainstormed income-generating activities that community members can use to start a group savings account for any future minor repairs to the spring and a cooperative lending group to enable members to develop small businesses.

Participants were very eager to learn how to make soap. Agnes Kharinda, one of the participants, confessed she had been buying liquid soap from the marketplace whose quality was not as good as the one they had been taught to make during the training. She decided to sell soap so she can generate additional income.

Rose practicing how to wash her hands properly.

Water committee chairperson and village health volunteer, 50-year-old Rose Lumbasi said, "The training was very valuable because I learned how to make quality soap and the reagents used and their names. I will no longer buy liquid soap from anybody, or [the] marketplace, because I now know how to make it by myself. I will avail myself to teach those who did not attend the training, so that they can be able to make [it too], instead of buying it. Soap-making will earn me some income. I will also share the knowledge gained with other members of the community."

When an issue arises concerning the spring, the water user committee is equipped with the necessary skills to rectify the problem and ensure the water point works appropriately. However, if the issue is beyond their capabilities, they can contact our field officers to assist them. Also, we will continue to offer them unmatchable support as a part of our ongoing monitoring and maintenance program.

Thank you for making all of this possible!

January, 2022: Kharinda Spring Protection Underway!

A severe clean water shortage in Manguliro Community drains people’s time, energy, and health. Thanks to your generosity, we’re working to install a clean water point and much more.

Get to know this community through the introduction and pictures we’ve posted, and read about this water, sanitation, and hygiene project. We look forward to reaching out with more good news!

Project Photos

Project Type

Springs are water sources that come from deep underground, where the water is filtered through natural layers until it is clean enough to drink. Once the water pushes through the surface of the Earth, however, outside elements like waste and runoff can contaminate the water quickly. We protect spring sources from contamination with a simple waterproof cement structure surrounding layers of clay, stone, and soil. This construction channels the spring’s water through a discharge pipe, making water collection easier, faster, and cleaner. Each spring protection also includes a chlorine dispenser at the waterpoint so community members can be assured that the water they are drinking is entirely safe. Learn more here!

A Year Later: "Now the water is very clean."

March, 2023

A year ago, your generous donation helped Mang’uliro Community in Kenya access clean water – creating a life-changing moment for Hope. Thank you!

Keeping The Water Promise

There's an incredible community of monthly donors who have come alongside you in supporting clean water in Mang'uliro Community 2.

This giving community supports ongoing sustainability programs that help Mang'uliro Community 2 maintain access to safe, reliable water. Together, they keep The Water Promise.

We’re confident you'll love joining this world-changing group committed to sustainability!

Before the spring was protected in Mang'uliro last year, people spent too much time collecting dirty water, often making them ill with water-related illnesses.

"We were fetching water [from] a hole using containers, and it's the same containers we would use to carry water. The process of fetching water resulted [in] getting a mixture of dirty and clean water," said 14-year-old Hope N.

But things have been improved for Hope and others that rely on Kharinda spring since the spring protection.

"Now the water is very clean. I enjoy fetching water each time I am sent to do so since I know I am fetching and taking home clean water within a short period of time. Before taking water home, I also ensure I treat it with chlorine," said Hope. "Spring safety has been enhanced; thus, our security is guaranteed. I don't hesitate to go there. I also enjoy making many trips to the spring because when I remember how beautiful it is by the decorations done to it."

Now that Hope can quickly collect safe water, she has time for other activities that were often neglected before the spring's protection.

"Minimal time [is] used in getting water; thus, a lot of time is invested in doing other activities, especially [my] school assignments," concluded Hope.

Hope (far right) with friends at the spring.

Navigating through intense dry spells, performing preventative maintenance, conducting quality repairs when needed and continuing to assist community leaders to manage water points are all normal parts of keeping projects sustainable. The Water Promise community supports ongoing sustainability programs that help Mang'uliro Community 2 maintain access to safe, reliable water.

We’d love for you to join this world-changing group committed to sustainability.

The most impactful way to continue your support of Mang'uliro Community 2 – and hundreds of other places just like this – is by joining our community of monthly givers.

Your monthly giving will help provide clean water, every month... keeping The Water Promise.


Thomas R Fox Family Charitable Foundation
Sandcastle Giving Fund
Liberty Mutual Employee Match
16 individual donor(s)