Project Status

Project Type:  Protected Spring

Regional Program: Western Kenya WaSH Program

Impact: 105 Served

Project Phase:  In Service - Sep 2022

Functionality Status:  Functional

Last Checkup: 02/03/2024

Project Features

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Waterborne illness is a neverending problem for the 105 residents of Lukhokho community.

"I personally have wasted a lot of my resources in seeking medication [for] waterborne and water-related diseases as a result of using water drawn here for drinking," said Noel Wakamu, a 43-year old farmer (pictured below fetching water). "If it is not me, one or two of my family members will be victims, and I am the one to take care of them, so I will also have to use my resources in seeking medication for them."

Noel explained that during some seasons of the year, the majority of Lukhokho community's people end up sick in bed with typhoid, leaving their fields with no one to tend them.

The spring is the sole water point for all community members to rely on for drinking water and for different households chores. Because everyone needs the water, it is often overcrowded, especially during morning and evening hours. So for one to avoid such traffic at the water point, he or she has to wake up early so as to collect water early when queues are not too long.

Even the children know they shouldn't be drinking the water from Wakamo Wanyama Spring. "Water fetched here is not safe for drinking, though it appears to be clean," said 11-year-old Ngome (pictured below).

"So because we don't have other sources, we do use it for drinking anyway. The end result is contracting waterborne diseases. I personally have missed going to school several [times] because of headache and typhoid on use of water fetched here and used without treating it."

Sometimes, the people themselves contaminate the water or spread germs unknowingly. Children play at the water source, or chew cane sugar and throw it in. Beside the water source are a field for grazing cows and an arrowroot plantation using carcinogenic fertilizer, both of which deposit runoff into the spring when it rains.

"We are using different containers in fetching water. Some are clean and [the] majority are not," Ngome explained.

With a protected spring provided, clean and safe water, and some hygiene training under their belts, the people of Lukhokho could be much better armed against waterborne diseases in the future.

What We Can Do:

Spring Protection

Protecting the spring will help provide access to cleaner and safer water and reduce the time people have to spend to fetch it. Construction will keep surface runoff and other contaminants out of the water. With the community’s high involvement in the process, there should be a good sense of responsibility and ownership for the new clean water source.

Fetching water is a task predominantly carried out by women and young girls. Protecting the spring and offering training and support will, therefore, help empower the female members of the community by freeing up more of their time and energy to engage and invest in income-generating activities and their education.

Training on Health, Hygiene, COVID-19, and More

To hold trainings during the pandemic, we work closely with both community leaders and the local government to approve small groups to attend training. We ask community leaders to invite a select yet representative group of people to attend training who will then act as ambassadors to the rest of the community to share what they learn. We also communicate our expectations of physical distancing and wearing masks for all who choose to attend.

The training will focus on improved hygiene, health, and sanitation habits in this community. We will also have a dedicated session on COVID-19 symptoms, transmission routes, and prevention best practices.

With the community’s input, we will identify key leverage points where they can alter their practices at the personal, household, and community levels to affect change. This training will help to ensure participants have the knowledge they need about healthy practices and their importance to make the most of their water point as soon as water is flowing.

Our team of facilitators will use a variety of methods to train community members. Some of these methods include participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation, asset-based community development, group discussions, handouts, and demonstrations at the spring.

One of the most important issues we plan to cover is the handling, storage, and treatment of water. Having a clean water source will be extremely helpful, but it is useless if water gets contaminated by the time it is consumed. We and the community strongly believe that all of these components will work together to improve living standards here, which will help to unlock the potential for these community members to live better, healthier lives.

We will then conduct a small series of follow-up trainings before transitioning to our regularly scheduled support visits throughout the year.

Training will result in the formation of a water user committee, elected by their peers, that will oversee the operations and maintenance of the spring. The committee will enforce proper behavior around the spring and delegate tasks that will help preserve the site, such as building a fence and digging proper drainage channels. The fence will keep out destructive animals and unwanted waste, and the drainage will keep the area’s mosquito population at a minimum.

Project Updates

September, 2022: Lukhokho Community Spring Protection Complete!

Lukhokho Community now has access to clean water! We transformed Wakamo Wanyama Spring into a flowing source of naturally filtered water thanks to your donation. Our team also trained the community on improved sanitation and hygiene practices. Together, these components will unlock the opportunity for community members to live better, healthier lives.

"The reliability of water from this water point will impact my life positively," said 35-year-old farmer Injendi Shitama. "This is because I will no longer drink contaminated water like before. Additionally, I will no longer waste my time queuing at the water point fetching water, thus spending minimal time, which will help me concentrate on other income-generating activities."

Injendi (left, in the striped shirt) fetches water with other community members.

"My plan is to improve hygiene practices, which used to be very poor," Injendi continued. "I used to wash my clothes only when visitors are visiting me. This is because getting water at this water point sometimes was very challenging, especially during dry spells because the spring serves a lot of people from different villages, which was making the water very dirty. Now that the spring has been protected, I will be able to fetch water anytime."

Children were just as excited as adults about the new waterpoint.

"Firstly, I will be able to drink safe, clean water," said 14-year-old Ester J. "Secondly, I will be able to concentrate on my studies because I will no longer take a lot of time at the spring fetching water, unlike before. I used to fetch water using a jug which [took] a lot of time because I had to be very careful not to contaminate the water."

Ester at the spring.

"My goal is to improve in [my] academic performance and hygiene practices because I will no longer spend a lot of time fetching water, thus saving time," Ester continued. "As an [exam] candidate, I am very much sure that I will greatly improve in my academics. Additionally, I will be able to wash my school uniform twice a week since water is available all the time, and the knowledge acquired in [the] soap-making process will help me a lot."

Preparing for Spring Protection

Community members worked together to source and carry all locally available construction materials to the spring. These included bricks, sand, stones, and fencing poles. Some people also chiseled away at large rocks to break them down into gravel. Because people have to carry most items by hand, the material-collection process can take anywhere from a few weeks to months.

When the community was ready, we sent a lorry to deliver the remaining construction materials, including cement, plastic tarps, and hardware. Then, our construction artisan and field officers deployed to the spring to begin work. Individual households provided meals throughout each day to sustain the work team.

From Open Source to Protected Spring: A Step-by-Step Process

First, we cleared and excavated the spring area. Next, we dug a drainage channel below the spring and several runoff diversion channels above and around the spring. These help to divert surface contaminants away.

To ensure community members could still access water throughout the construction process, we also dug temporary channels from the spring's eye around the construction site. This allowed water to flow without disrupting community members' tasks or the construction work. Excavation created space for setting the spring's foundation, made of thick plastic tarp, wire mesh, concrete, and waterproof cement.

After establishing the base, we started brickwork to build the headwall, wing walls, and stairs. Once the walls had grown tall enough, we began one of the most crucial steps: setting the discharge pipe. The discharge pipe needs to be positioned low enough in the headwall so the water level never rises above the spring's eye, yet high enough to allow room for the average jerrycan (a 20-liter container) to sit beneath the pipe without making contact.

If we place the discharge pipe too high above the spring's eye, backpressure could force water to emerge elsewhere. Too low, and community members would not be able to access the water easily. We embedded the pipe using clay (or mortar when clay is in short supply) and placed it at an incline to ensure water flows in the right direction.

In coordination with brickwork, we pitched stones on both sides of the spring's drainage channel. We then cemented and plastered each stone, forming the rub walls. These walls discourage people and animals from standing in that area, which could cause soil erosion and a clogged drainage area.

We then cemented and plastered both sides of the headwall and wing walls. These finishing layers reinforce the brickwork and prevent water in the reservoir from seeping through the walls. In turn, enough pressure builds in the reservoir box to push water out through the discharge pipe.

As the headwall and wing walls cured, we cemented and plastered the stairs and installed four tiles beneath the discharge pipe. The tiles protect the concrete from the falling water's erosive force while beautifying the spring and facilitating easy cleaning of the spring floor.

The final stage of construction is backfilling the reservoir box behind the discharge pipe. We cleared the collection box of any debris that may have fallen during construction. Then we redirected the temporary diversion channels back into the reservoir box, channeling water into this area for the first time. We closed off all of the other exits to start forcing water through the discharge pipe only.

We filled up the reservoir area with the large, clean stones community members had gathered, arranging them in layers like a well-fitting puzzle. We covered the rocks with a thick plastic tarp to minimize potential contamination sources, then piled enough dirt on top to compensate for future settling.

Community members transplanted grass onto the backfilled soil to help prevent erosion. Finally, the collection area was fenced to discourage any person or animal from walking on it. Compaction can lead to disturbances in the backfill layers and potentially compromise water quality.

The entire construction process took about two weeks of work and patience to allow the cement and plaster to finish curing. As soon as the spring was ready, people got the okay from their local field officers to fetch water.

We officially handed over the spring to mark the community's ownership of the water point. Happiness, thanksgiving, and appreciation were the order of the day, flowing in all directions. Community members said a prayer to bless the spring and thank everyone involved in its creation.

Training on Health, Hygiene, and More

Together with the community, we found their preferred date for training while considering other community calendar events, such as the agricultural season and social events. We requested a representative group of community members to attend training and relay the information learned to the rest of their family and friends.

When the day arrived, facilitators Nelly, Jonathan, and Catherine deployed to the site to lead the event. 20 people attended the training, including 15 women and five men. We held the training under a shade tree near the spring.

We covered several topics, including community participation in the project, leadership and governance, personal and environmental hygiene, water handling and treatment, spring maintenance, dental hygiene, the ten steps of handwashing, disease prevention, and how to make and use handwashing stations.

During the leadership and governance session, we held an election for the newly formed water user committee leaders, who will oversee the maintenance of the spring. We also brainstormed income-generating activities. Community members can now start a group savings account for any future minor repairs to the spring and a cooperative lending group, enabling them to develop small businesses.

When we talked about maintaining the spring, everyone marched to the waterpoint so we could show community members the different parts of the spring and how to care for each. All the members of the community appreciated the fact that Lukhokho's older men wanted to know all the parts and how to maintain them. People posed questions and listened attentively, which was so encouraging to our field officers.

"It was so wonderful to see members of the community working together in order to achieve a common goal of accessing clean and safe water," said field officer Nelly Chebet.

When we covered best handwashing practices, one community member put up a prize of half a kilo of sugar for the first person who could properly perform all the steps of handwashing, which made trying it out very exciting and fun for everyone.

Community members practice handwashing.

"I have acquired knowledge on alternative resources to use in brushing my teeth," said Ester, who was quoted earlier. "It [would] be a lame excuse to fail in brushing my teeth because of a lack of money to buy toothpaste or toothbrush. [This] training has helped me to know that salt, charcoal, and chewed sticks can also aid me to practice dental hygiene in the same manner [as] toothpaste and toothbrush."

While what Ester said may sound incredible to those who are unfamiliar with the practice, studies have shown that using chewing sticks from the locally grown "toothbrush tree" is quite effective. For families who struggle financially, this is a great way to ensure they are still tending to their personal hygiene.


This project required a substantial collaboration between our staff, our in-country teams, and the community members themselves. When an issue arises concerning the spring, the water user committee is equipped with the necessary skills to rectify the problem and ensure the water point works appropriately. However, if the issue is beyond their capabilities, they can contact their local field officers to assist them.

Also, we will continue to offer them unmatchable support as a part of our monitoring and maintenance program. We walk with each community, problem-solving together when they face challenges with functionality, seasonality, or water quality. Together, all these components help us strive for enduring access to reliable, clean, and safe water for this community.

With your contribution, one more piece has been added to a large puzzle of water projects. In our target areas, we’re working toward complete coverage of reliable, maintained water sources within a 30-minute round trip for each community, household, school, and health center. With this in mind, search through our upcoming projects to see which community you can help next!

Thank you for making all of this possible!

August, 2022: Lukhokho Community Spring Protection Underway!

A severe clean water shortage in Lukhokho Community drains people’s time, energy, and health. Thanks to your generosity, we’re working to install a clean water point and much more.

Get to know this community through the introduction and pictures we’ve posted, and read about this water, sanitation, and hygiene project. We look forward to reaching out with more good news!

Project Photos

Project Type

Springs are water sources that come from deep underground, where the water is filtered through natural layers until it is clean enough to drink. Once the water pushes through the surface of the Earth, however, outside elements like waste and runoff can contaminate the water quickly. We protect spring sources from contamination with a simple waterproof cement structure surrounding layers of clay, stone, and soil. This construction channels the spring’s water through a discharge pipe, making water collection easier, faster, and cleaner. Each spring protection also includes a chlorine dispenser at the waterpoint so community members can be assured that the water they are drinking is entirely safe. Learn more here!

A Year Later: "The Water Fetched is Clean and Safe for Human Consumption"

October, 2023

A year ago, your generous donation helped Lukhokho Community in Kenya access clean water – creating a life-changing moment for Saul. Thank you!

Keeping The Water Promise

There's an incredible community of monthly donors who have come alongside you in supporting clean water in Lukhokho Community 2.

This giving community supports ongoing sustainability programs that help Lukhokho Community 2 maintain access to safe, reliable water. Together, they keep The Water Promise.

We’re confident you'll love joining this world-changing group committed to sustainability!

Saul, 12, recalled what life was like in the Lukhokho Community before his spring was protected last year.

"Before [the] protection of this water point, my mother used to send me to fetch water for drinking and domestic uses. Sometimes, I got back home very late because I had to wait for some time for [the] water to be clean. I had to queue for about three hours, especially during dry seasons, which was so tiresome and challenging," said Saul.

But life is much simpler for Saul and the other community members in Lukhokho now.

"[The] reliable water source has really impacted my life in a positive way. This is because when fetching water it takes a minimal time to fill my jerrican hence no more wastage of time. Lastly, the water fetched is clean and safe for human consumption," Saul continued.

Having ready access to water that is safe to drink from the spring has made a difference for Saul, allowing him time for other important things like his daily hygiene.

"My plan is to ensure that I improve in personal hygiene practices. This was so challenging to [do before] because whenever I washed my clothes [the] stains remained. But nowadays, my clothes are clean, and I can take [a] bath at least twice a day, unlike before," concluded Saul.

Saul and fellow community member Noel at the waterpoint.

Right now, there are others in neighboring communities that desperately need safe water access. Your support will immediately go to work to provide a clean water project - and we can't wait to introduce you to the next person you'll help.


Navigating through intense dry spells, performing preventative maintenance, conducting quality repairs when needed and continuing to assist community leaders to manage water points are all normal parts of keeping projects sustainable. The Water Promise community supports ongoing sustainability programs that help Lukhokho Community 2 maintain access to safe, reliable water.

We’d love for you to join this world-changing group committed to sustainability.

The most impactful way to continue your support of Lukhokho Community 2 – and hundreds of other places just like this – is by joining our community of monthly givers.

Your monthly giving will help provide clean water, every month... keeping The Water Promise.


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