Project Status



Project Type:  Protected Spring

Regional Program: Western Kenya WaSH Program

Impact: 154 Served

Project Phase:  In Service - Apr 2022

Functionality Status:  Functional

Last Checkup: 11/18/2022

Project Features


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The area near Busingo spring in the Vihiga region of Western Kenya is vegetative with many indigenous trees. The roads are not tarmac [paved], and most houses in this community are clay. Tea plantations provide the main source of income for community members, with a few growing other crops like bananas and sweet potatoes.

The normal daily routines of the 154 community members accessing this water point are affected by the lack of clean, safe water. The water source is overcrowded, especially during the morning hours, so collecting water before attending to work activities that supply their daily bread is time-consuming. Collecting enough water for drinking, cooking, washing clothes, bathing, and washing utensils [dishes] is challenging, especially for those who travel long distances.

"We have really suffered as a community due to lack of clean and safe water. This has really affected our hygiene standard; people skip bathing daily, washing clothes, utensils, etc. The majority of people cannot practice agribusiness activities due to lack of enough water," said Daudi Azani, a local farmer (shown above).

Once getting near the spring and waiting their turn, the collection area is not easy to access due to its steepness and lack of stairs. The area is open to contamination, which contributes to poor health, and people contracting diseases such as cholera and typhoid.

"I have been affected mostly by this water source, especially the time when [I] am supposed to be in school, but due to lack of clean uniforms, I end up being absent. This contributes to poor performance in many activities, more so academics. It has also contributed to the outbreak of diseases amongst ourselves and the community at large, i.e., typhoid, sore throat, cholera, etc.," said Dorothy M., a local student (shown below).

What We Can Do:

Spring Protection

Protecting the spring will help provide access to cleaner and safer water and reduce the time people have to spend to fetch it. Construction will keep surface runoff and other contaminants out of the water. With the community’s high involvement in the process, there should be a good sense of responsibility and ownership for the new clean water source.

Fetching water is a task predominantly carried out by women and young girls. Protecting the spring and offering training and support will, therefore, help empower the female members of the community by freeing up more of their time and energy to engage and invest in income-generating activities and their education.

Training on Health, Hygiene, COVID-19, and More

To hold trainings during the pandemic, we work closely with both community leaders and the local government to approve small groups to attend training. We ask community leaders to invite a select yet representative group of people to attend training who will then act as ambassadors to the rest of the community to share what they learn. We also communicate our expectations of physical distancing and wearing masks for all who choose to attend.

The training will focus on improved hygiene, health, and sanitation habits in this community. We will also have a dedicated session on COVID-19 symptoms, transmission routes, and prevention best practices.

With the community’s input, we will identify key leverage points where they can alter their practices at the personal, household, and community levels to affect change. This training will help to ensure participants have the knowledge they need about healthy practices and their importance to make the most of their water point as soon as water is flowing.

Our team of facilitators will use a variety of methods to train community members. Some of these methods include participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation, asset-based community development, group discussions, handouts, and demonstrations at the spring.

One of the most important issues we plan to cover is the handling, storage, and treatment of water. Having a clean water source will be extremely helpful, but it is useless if water gets contaminated by the time it is consumed. We and the community strongly believe that all of these components will work together to improve living standards here, which will help to unlock the potential for these community members to live better, healthier lives.

We will then conduct a small series of follow-up trainings before transitioning to our regularly scheduled support visits throughout the year.

Training will result in the formation of a water user committee, elected by their peers, that will oversee the operations and maintenance of the spring. The committee will enforce proper behavior around the spring and delegate tasks that will help preserve the site, such as building a fence and digging proper drainage channels. The fence will keep out destructive animals and unwanted waste, and the drainage will keep the area’s mosquito population at a minimum.

Project Updates


04/12/2022: Busingo Community Spring Protection Complete!

Busingo Community now has access to clean water! We transformed Busingo Spring into a flowing source of naturally filtered water thanks to your donation. Our team also trained the community on improved sanitation and hygiene practices. Together, these components will unlock the opportunity for community members to live better, healthier lives.

Community members celebrating.

Farmer Dorothy Mulira said, "I have peace of mind due to access to clean water. This has reduced my daily work. I can ensure the entire family are clean, staying in a clean house, bathing daily, and even eating food which is being cooked in clean water."

Dorothy collecting water.

Children were just as excited as adults about the new waterpoint.

"The right time comes for everything, and ours indeed came. I can celebrate access to clean water. This has brought changes to me now as I can have more time doing assignments, going to school at the right time, and also our parents are not spending more on medication like in the past," said Beatrice K.

Beatrice at the spring.

Preparing for Spring Protection

Community members worked together to source and carry all locally available construction materials to the spring. These included bricks, sand, stones, and fencing poles. Some people also chiseled away at large rocks to break them down into gravel. Because people have to carry most items by hand, the material-collection process can take anywhere from a few weeks to months.

When the community was ready, we sent a lorry to deliver the remaining construction materials, including cement, plastic tarps, and hardware. Then, our construction artisan and field officers deployed to the spring to begin work. Individual households provided meals throughout each day to sustain the work team.

From Open Source to Protected Spring: A Step-by-Step Process

At last, it was time to dig in at the spring! Locals lent their strength to the artisans to help with the manual labor.

Community members help mix cement.

First, we cleared and excavated the spring area. Next, we dug a drainage channel below the spring and several runoff diversion channels above and around the spring. These help to divert surface contaminants away.

To ensure community members could still access water throughout the construction process, we also dug temporary channels from the spring's eye around the construction site. This allowed water to flow without disrupting community members' tasks or the construction work.

Excavation created space for setting the spring's foundation, made of thick plastic tarp, wire mesh, concrete, and waterproof cement. After establishing the base, we started brickwork to build the headwall, wing walls, and stairs.

Once the walls had grown tall enough, we began one of the most crucial steps: setting the discharge pipe. The discharge pipe needs to be positioned low enough in the headwall so the water level never rises above the spring's eye, yet high enough to allow room for the average jerrycan (a 20-liter container) to sit beneath the pipe without making contact.

If we place the discharge pipe too high above the spring's eye, backpressure could force water to emerge elsewhere. Too low, and community members would not be able to access the water easily. We embedded the pipe using clay (or mortar when clay is in short supply) and placed it at an incline to ensure water flows in the right direction.

In coordination with brickwork, we pitched stones on both sides of the spring's drainage channel. We then cemented and plastered each stone, forming the rub walls. These walls discourage people and animals from standing in that area, which could cause soil erosion and a clogged drainage area.

We then cemented and plastered both sides of the headwall and wing walls. These finishing layers reinforce the brickwork and prevent water in the reservoir from seeping through the walls. In turn, enough pressure builds in the reservoir box to push water out through the discharge pipe.

As the headwall and wing walls cured, we cemented and plastered the stairs and installed four tiles beneath the discharge pipe. The tiles protect the concrete from the falling water's erosive force while beautifying the spring and facilitating easy cleaning of the spring floor.

The final stage of construction is backfilling the reservoir box behind the discharge pipe. We cleared the collection box of any debris that may have fallen during construction. Then we redirected the temporary diversion channels back into the reservoir box, channeling water into this area for the first time. We closed off all of the other exits to start forcing water through the discharge pipe only.

We filled up the reservoir area with the large, clean stones community members had gathered, arranging them in layers like a well-fitting puzzle. We covered the rocks with a thick plastic tarp to minimize potential contamination sources, then piled enough dirt on top to compensate for future settling.

Community members transplanted grass onto the backfilled soil to help prevent erosion. Finally, the collection area was fenced to discourage any person or animal from walking on it. Compaction can lead to disturbances in the backfill layers and potentially compromise water quality.

The entire construction process took about two weeks of work and patience to allow the cement and plaster to finish curing.

Final onsite training.

We did a final onsite training at the spring. As it was happening, excited people arrived with containers to fetch water. The group of training participants asked questions of them and formulated rules to guide the water users. The session ended with the facilitator handing over the spring to community representatives to mark their ownership of the water point. Happiness, thanksgiving, and appreciation were the order of the day, flowing in all directions.

Cleaning the spring.

Training on Health, Hygiene, COVID-19, and More

Together with the community, we found their preferred date for training while considering other community calendar events, such as the agricultural season and social events. We requested a representative group of community members to attend training to relay the information learned to the rest of their family and friends.

When the day arrived, facilitators Victor Musemi and Amos Emisiko deployed to the site to lead the event. 15 people attended the training, including 12 women and three men. We held the training outside one of the community members' homes near the spring.

We covered several topics, including community participation in the project, leadership and governance, personal and environmental hygiene, water handling and treatment, spring maintenance, dental hygiene, the ten steps of handwashing, disease prevention, and how to make and use handwashing stations.

During the leadership and governance session, we held an election for the newly formed water user committee leaders, who will oversee the maintenance of the spring. We also brainstormed income-generating activities. Community members can now start a group savings account for any future minor repairs to the spring and a cooperative lending group, enabling them to develop small businesses.

Soapmaking session.

The participants' favorite training session was related to the operation and maintenance of the spring. They engaged with the topic by doing a practical demonstration and immediately cleaning the area surrounding the spring.

"To me, the training session was more of an interaction, [where] new ideas and skills were shared. This has expanded my thinking capacity when handling matters concerning hygiene and sanitation within the community," said farmer Anthony Luhongo.

Anthony collecting water.

When an issue arises concerning the spring, the water user committee is equipped with the necessary skills to rectify the problem and ensure the water point works appropriately. However, if the issue is beyond their capabilities, they can contact our field officers to assist them. Also, we will continue to offer them unmatchable support as a part of our ongoing monitoring and maintenance program.

Thank you for making all of this possible!




03/08/2022: Busingo Community Spring Protection Underway!

A severe clean water shortage in Busingo Community drains people’s time, energy, and health. Thanks to your generosity, we’re working to install a clean water point and much more.

Get to know this community through the introduction and pictures we’ve posted, and read about this water, sanitation, and hygiene project. We look forward to reaching out with more good news!




Project Photos


Project Type

Protected Spring

In many communities, natural springs exist as water flows from cracks in rocky ground or the side of a hill.  Springs provide reliable water but that doesn’t mean safe. When left open they become contaminated by surface contamination, animal and human waste and rain runoff. The solution is to protect the source. First, you excavate around the exact source area of the spring. Then, you build a protective reservoir for water flow, which pours through a reinforced pipe in a concrete headwall to a paved collection area. Safe water typically flows year-round and there is very limited ongoing maintenance needed!


Contributors

5 individual donor(s)