Project Status

Project Type:  Protected Spring

Regional Program: Western Kenya WaSH Program

Impact: 210 Served

Project Phase:  In Service - May 2023

Functionality Status:  Functional

Last Checkup: 11/11/2023

Project Features

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"The most unbearable time was when I got to the spring one day and found soil [had] flooded the drawing point and closed up the discharge pipe," said Edith, a 29-year-old farmer in Makhwabuye Community (in the below picture). "This was so heartbreaking and made me hate this community."

The 210 people in Makhwabuye have a seemingly endless list of problems with Machanja Vihembo Spring, and rightfully so. The area is muddy and slippery so people often fall while trying to fetch water. The discharge pipe is far too low, so normal jerrycans won't fit underneath it unless they're embedded in the spring's muddy floor. As Edith said, sometimes the discharge pipe becomes clogged with sediment, producing only a small stream of brown water. And the water itself is contaminated.

"Coming to fetch water from this water point is very tiresome," said Marvin V., who is 12 years old (pictured below at the spring).

"This makes me skip bathing on a daily basis. Accessibility is very poor, thus most of the time I get home with a dirty container. If only we can receive help, then our lives would change for the best."

Because the water is so difficult to fetch and makes people sick, a lot of time is wasted that could be spent farming or in other, more productive ways.

"Lucky us when people walked in the compound and said they had come to survey the water points that are not protected," Edith said.

Makhwabuye's people have already begun to gather local materials to aid in the construction of a protected spring. They are so eager for their lives to change.

What We Can Do:

Spring Protection

Protecting the spring will help provide access to cleaner and safer water and reduce the time people have to spend to fetch it. Construction will keep surface runoff and other contaminants out of the water. With the community’s high involvement in the process, there should be a good sense of responsibility and ownership for the new clean water source.

Fetching water is a task predominantly carried out by women and young girls. Protecting the spring and offering training and support will, therefore, help empower the female members of the community by freeing up more of their time and energy to engage and invest in income-generating activities and their education.

Training on Health, Hygiene, COVID-19, and More

To hold trainings during the pandemic, we work closely with both community leaders and the local government to approve small groups to attend training. We ask community leaders to invite a select yet representative group of people to attend training who will then act as ambassadors to the rest of the community to share what they learn. We also communicate our expectations of physical distancing and wearing masks for all who choose to attend.

The training will focus on improved hygiene, health, and sanitation habits in this community. We will also have a dedicated session on COVID-19 symptoms, transmission routes, and prevention best practices.

With the community’s input, we will identify key leverage points where they can alter their practices at the personal, household, and community levels to affect change. This training will help to ensure participants have the knowledge they need about healthy practices and their importance to make the most of their water point as soon as water is flowing.

Our team of facilitators will use a variety of methods to train community members. Some of these methods include participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation, asset-based community development, group discussions, handouts, and demonstrations at the spring.

One of the most important issues we plan to cover is the handling, storage, and treatment of water. Having a clean water source will be extremely helpful, but it is useless if water gets contaminated by the time it is consumed. We and the community strongly believe that all of these components will work together to improve living standards here, which will help to unlock the potential for these community members to live better, healthier lives.

We will then conduct a small series of follow-up trainings before transitioning to our regularly scheduled support visits throughout the year.

Training will result in the formation of a water user committee, elected by their peers, that will oversee the operations and maintenance of the spring. The committee will enforce proper behavior around the spring and delegate tasks that will help preserve the site, such as building a fence and digging proper drainage channels. The fence will keep out destructive animals and unwanted waste, and the drainage will keep the area’s mosquito population at a minimum.

Project Updates

May, 2023: Makhwabuye Community Spring Protection Complete!

Makhwabuye Community now has access to clean water! Thanks to your donation, we transformed Machanja Vihembo Spring into a flowing source of naturally filtered water. We also installed a chlorine dispenser to provide added protection and trained the community on improved sanitation and hygiene practices. Together, these components will unlock the opportunity for community members to live better, healthier lives.

"My children are still young, and they often get sick due to unsafe water-related illnesses. I am glad this will no longer be one of my worries since [the] water is now clean and safe for drinking," said 29-year-old farmer and secretary of the water user committee Phyllis Akwabi.

Phyllis is excited about clean water.

"I used to waste a lot of time at the spring while waiting for my turn to fetch water, but now it is very easy and fast. Therefore, no queues are experienced. Now I have enough time to perform other family activities. Money that was to be spent on hospital bills will now be used to provide basic needs to my family."

Children were just as excited as adults about the new waterpoint.

"My siblings and I will be able to go to the protected (spring) without worrying about falling because of the muddy environment. Accessing the spring has been made easy for us," said 12-year-old Laban.

Laban filling his water container.

"I spend less time to fetch water than before, then [I] go to school on time. This project has come at the right time since I will be sitting for my KCPE (Kenya Certificate for Primary Education) next year, and I believe I will pass well since I will have more time to concentrate in class. Thank you very much for making our spring beautiful."

Preparing for Spring Protection

Community members worked together to source and carry all locally available construction materials to the spring. These included bricks, sand, stones, and fencing poles. Some people also chiseled away at large rocks to break them into gravel. Because people have to carry most items by hand, the material-collection process can take anywhere from a few weeks to months.

When the community was ready, we sent a truck to deliver the remaining construction materials, including cement, plastic tarps, and hardware. Then, our construction artisan and field officers deployed to the spring to begin work. Individual households provided meals throughout each day to sustain the work team.

From Open Source to Protected Spring: A Step-by-Step Process

First, we cleared and excavated the spring area. Next, we dug a drainage channel below the spring and several runoff diversion channels above and around the spring. These help to divert surface contaminants away.

To ensure community members could still access water throughout the construction process, we also dug temporary channels around the construction site from the spring's eye. This allowed water to flow without disrupting community members' tasks or the construction work. Excavation created space for setting the spring's foundation, made of thick plastic, wire mesh, concrete, and waterproof cement.

After establishing the base, we started brickwork to build the headwall, wing walls, and stairs. Once the walls had grown tall enough, we began one of the most crucial steps: setting the discharge pipe. The discharge pipe needs to be positioned low enough in the headwall so the water level never rises above the spring's eye, yet high enough to allow room for the average jerrycan (a 20-liter container) to sit beneath the pipe without making contact, which prevents cross-contamination.

If we place the discharge pipe too high above the spring's eye, back pressure could force water to emerge elsewhere. Too low, and community members would not be able to access the water easily. We embedded the pipe using clay (or mortar when the clay is in short supply) and placed it at an incline to ensure water flows in the right direction.

In coordination with brickwork, we pitched stones on both sides of the spring's drainage channel. We then cemented and plastered each stone, forming the rub walls. These walls discourage people and animals from standing in that area, which could cause soil erosion and a clogged drainage area.

We then cemented and plastered both sides of the headwall and wing walls. These finishing layers reinforce the brickwork and prevent water in the reservoir from seeping through the walls. In turn, enough pressure builds in the reservoir box to push water out through the discharge pipe.

As the headwall and wing walls cured, we cemented and plastered the stairs and installed four tiles beneath the discharge pipe. The tiles protect the concrete from the falling water's erosive force while beautifying the spring and facilitating easy cleaning of the spring floor.

The final stage of construction is backfilling the reservoir box behind the discharge pipe. We cleared the collection box of any debris that may have fallen during construction. Then we redirected the temporary diversion channels back into the reservoir box, channeling water into this area for the first time. We close all other exits to force water through only the discharge pipe.

We filled the reservoir area with the large, clean stones community members had gathered, arranging them in layers like a well-fitting puzzle. We covered the rocks with a thick plastic to minimize potential contamination sources, then piled enough dirt on top to compensate for future settling.

Community members transplanted grass onto the backfilled soil to help prevent erosion. The collection area was fenced to discourage any person or animal from walking on it. Compaction can lead to disturbances in the backfill layers and potentially compromise water quality.

The construction process took about two weeks of work and patience to allow the cement and plaster to finish curing. As soon as the spring was ready, people got the okay from their local field officers to fetch water.

We officially handed over the spring to mark the community's ownership of the water point. Happiness, thanksgiving, and appreciation were the order of the day, flowing in all directions.

Training on Health, Hygiene, and More

Together with the community, we found their preferred date for training while considering other community calendar events, such as the agricultural season and social events. We requested a representative group of community members to attend training and relay the information learned to the rest of their families and friends.

When the day arrived, facilitators Christine and Patience deployed to the site to lead the event. 27 people attended the training, including 20 women and seven men. We held the training under some shade trees in a community member's compound.

Learning how to make soap.

We covered several topics, including community participation in the project; leadership and governance; personal, dental, and environmental hygiene; water handling and treatment; spring maintenance; the importance of primary health care and disease prevention; family planning; soapmaking; how to make and use handwashing stations; and the ten steps of handwashing.

During the leadership and governance session, we held an election for the newly formed water user committee leaders, who will oversee the maintenance of the spring. We also brainstormed income-generating activities. Community members can now start a group savings account for any future minor repairs to the spring and a cooperative lending group, enabling them to develop small businesses.

Mr. Lwangu.

The leadership session was a favorite amongst participants.

"Mr. Lwangu, our contact person who was very committed towards the project implementation, was unanimously elected as the chairman of the Water User Committee. After a few minutes, a dove landed on his shoulder, which was an indication, according to the participants, that he was a true leader that suited the position he had just been selected for," shared our field officer.

"Thank you for taking your time to train us on hygiene and how to take care of our spring. This is important for us and our families, and it will change our lives forever," said Phyllis, who was quoted earlier.


"I cannot believe how easy it is to make soap! From today onwards, I will make soap on my own, and I will also share this knowledge with others so that they can benefit like me," concluded Phyllis.


This project required a substantial collaboration between our staff, our in-country teams, and the community members. When an issue arises concerning the spring, the water user committee is equipped with the necessary skills to rectify the problem and ensure the water point works appropriately. However, if the issue is beyond their capabilities, they can contact their local field officers to assist them.

Also, we will continue to offer them unmatchable support as a part of our monitoring and maintenance program. We walk with each community, problem-solving together when they face challenges with functionality, seasonality, or water quality. Together, all these components help us strive for enduring access to reliable, clean, and safe water for this community.

With your contribution, one more piece has been added to a large puzzle of water projects. In our target areas, we’re working toward complete coverage of reliable, maintained water sources within a 30-minute round trip for each community, household, school, and health center. With this in mind, search through our upcoming projects to see which community you can help next!

Thank you for making all of this possible!

August, 2022: Makhwabuye Spring Project Cancelled

When we attempt to install new water projects sometimes we hit a roadblock and are unable to complete the original plan due to factors outside of our control. Thankfully this project has been canceled for a positive reason. Another entity has protected the spring, and our services are no longer needed.

Gifts towards this project are being reallocated to a new project so another community can benefit from clean water.

If you have any questions, please know we are happy to discuss this change further.

May, 2022: Makhwabuye Community 5 Spring Protection Underway!

A severe clean water shortage in Makhwabuye Community drains people’s time, energy, and health. Thanks to your generosity, we’re working to install a clean water point and much more.

Get to know this community through the introduction and pictures we’ve posted, and read about this water, sanitation, and hygiene project. We look forward to reaching out with more good news!

Project Photos

Project Type

Springs are water sources that come from deep underground, where the water is filtered through natural layers until it is clean enough to drink. Once the water pushes through the surface of the Earth, however, outside elements like waste and runoff can contaminate the water quickly. We protect spring sources from contamination with a simple waterproof cement structure surrounding layers of clay, stone, and soil. This construction channels the spring’s water through a discharge pipe, making water collection easier, faster, and cleaner. Each spring protection also includes a chlorine dispenser at the waterpoint so community members can be assured that the water they are drinking is entirely safe. Learn more here!