Project Status

Project Type:  Protected Spring

Regional Program: Western Kenya WaSH Program

Impact: 220 Served

Project Phase:  In Service - Feb 2023

Functionality Status:  Functional

Last Checkup: 05/10/2024

Project Features

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Water from Askofu Sikolia Spring is dangerous for the 220 community members of Kwambiha to drink, yet it is the primary water source they rely on to meet their daily needs.

There have been minor attempts at spring protection in the past by other entities, but no one has successfully accomplished it.

"When I don't have enough firewood to boil my drinking water, my heart skips a beat because I know for sure this water is not safe due to its open source. An animal might die there and contaminate it," shared 40-year-old farmer Pauline Kimoti (shown below).

Sadly, many community members have reported suffering from water-related illnesses like typhoid and diarrhea, causing people to be ill and unable to perform essential daily tasks.

Community members accessing the spring find it a challenge. Without stairs, the steep slope toward the spring becomes slippery, especially during the rainy season, and makes navigating it with full water containers difficult.

"I just hate stepping in this flooded water to draw water because some people have jiggers in their feet and I just don't like it. I wish this place can be better with the water flowing freely through the drainage," said Harrison S., 16.

Community members are hopeful that this time with proper spring protection, they will be able to take a sigh of relief and have safe water they can rely on for a very long time.

What We Can Do:

Spring Protection

Protecting the spring will help provide access to cleaner and safer water and reduce the time people have to spend to fetch it. Construction will keep surface runoff and other contaminants out of the water. With the community’s high involvement in the process, there should be a good sense of responsibility and ownership for the new clean water source.

Fetching water is a task predominantly carried out by women and young girls. Protecting the spring and offering training and support will, therefore, help empower the female members of the community by freeing up more of their time and energy to engage and invest in income-generating activities and their education.

Training on Health, Hygiene and More

To hold trainings during the pandemic, we work closely with both community leaders and the local government to approve small groups to attend training. We ask community leaders to invite a select yet representative group of people to attend training who will then act as ambassadors to the rest of the community to share what they learn. We also communicate our expectations of physical distancing and wearing masks for all who choose to attend.

The training will focus on improved hygiene, health, and sanitation habits in this community. With the community’s input, we will identify key leverage points where they can alter their practices at the personal, household, and community levels to affect change. This training will help to ensure participants have the knowledge they need about healthy practices and their importance to make the most of their water point as soon as water is flowing.

Our team of facilitators will use a variety of methods to train community members. Some of these methods include participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation, asset-based community development, group discussions, handouts, and demonstrations at the spring.

One of the most important issues we plan to cover is the handling, storage, and treatment of water. Having a clean water source will be extremely helpful, but it is useless if water gets contaminated by the time it is consumed. We and the community strongly believe that all of these components will work together to improve living standards here, which will help to unlock the potential for these community members to live better, healthier lives.

We will then conduct a small series of follow-up trainings before transitioning to our regularly scheduled support visits throughout the year.

Training will result in the formation of a water user committee, elected by their peers, that will oversee the operations and maintenance of the spring. The committee will enforce proper behavior around the spring and delegate tasks that will help preserve the site, such as building a fence and digging proper drainage channels. The fence will keep out destructive animals and unwanted waste, and the drainage will keep the area’s mosquito population at a minimum.

Project Updates

February, 2023: Kwambiha Community Spring Protection Complete!

Kwambiha Community now has access to clean water! We transformed Askofu Sikolia Spring into a flowing source of naturally filtered water thanks to your donation. Our team also trained the community on improved sanitation and hygiene practices. Together, these components will unlock the opportunity for community members to live better, healthier lives.

"By protecting of this water point, cases of typhoid, cholera, and other water-related diseases will be history in this community as our water is clean and safe for use," said farmer Daisy Ingutia.


Children were just as excited as adults about the new waterpoint.

"Personal hygiene is paramount. When access to reliable and safe water becomes a hindrance, personal hygiene and sanitation are compromised. Protection of the spring will allow for access to clean, safe sufficient water at any given time of need, thus will help improve our hygiene and sanitation standards," said Harrison O.


Preparing for Spring Protection

Community members worked together to source and carry all locally available construction materials to the spring. These included bricks, sand, stones, and fencing poles. Some people also chiseled away at large rocks to break them down into gravel. Because people have to carry most items by hand, the material-collection process can take anywhere from a few weeks to months.

When the community was ready, we sent a lorry to deliver the remaining construction materials, including cement, plastic tarps, and hardware. Then, our construction artisan and field officers deployed to the spring to begin work. Individual households provided meals throughout each day to sustain the work team.

From Open Source to Protected Spring: A Step-by-Step Process

First, we cleared and excavated the spring area. Next, we dug a drainage channel below the spring and several runoff diversion channels above and around the spring. These help to divert surface contaminants away.

To ensure community members could still access water throughout the construction process, we also dug temporary channels from the spring's eye around the construction site. This allowed water to flow without disrupting community members' tasks or the construction work. Excavation created space for setting the spring's foundation, made of thick plastic tarp, wire mesh, concrete, and waterproof cement.

After establishing the base, we started brickwork to build the headwall, wing walls, and stairs. Once the walls had grown tall enough, we began one of the most crucial steps: setting the discharge pipes. The discharge pipes need to be positioned low enough in the headwall so the water level never rises above the spring's eye, yet high enough to allow room for the average jerrycan (a 20-liter container) to sit beneath the pipes without making contact.

If we place the discharge pipes too high above the spring's eye, backpressure could force water to emerge elsewhere. Too low, and community members would not be able to access the water easily. We embedded the pipes using clay (or mortar when clay is in short supply) and placed them at an incline to ensure water flows in the right direction.

In coordination with brickwork, we pitched stones on both sides of the spring's drainage channel. We then cemented and plastered each stone, forming the rub walls. These walls discourage people and animals from standing in that area, which could cause soil erosion and a clogged drainage area.

We then cemented and plastered both sides of the headwall and wing walls. These finishing layers reinforce the brickwork and prevent water in the reservoir from seeping through the walls. In turn, enough pressure builds in the reservoir box to push water out through the discharge pipes.

As the headwall and wing walls cured, we cemented and plastered the stairs and installed four tiles beneath the discharge pipes. The tiles protect the concrete from the falling water's erosive force while beautifying the spring and facilitating easy cleaning of the spring floor.

The final stage of construction is backfilling the reservoir box behind the discharge pipes. We cleared the collection box of any debris that may have fallen during construction. Then we redirected the temporary diversion channels back into the reservoir box, channeling water into this area for the first time. We closed off all of the other exits to start forcing water through the discharge pipes only.

We filled up the reservoir area with the large, clean stones community members had gathered, arranging them in layers like a well-fitting puzzle. We covered the rocks with a thick plastic tarp to minimize potential contamination sources, then piled enough dirt on top to compensate for future settling.

Community members transplanted grass onto the backfilled soil to help prevent erosion. Finally, the collection area was fenced to discourage any person or animal from walking on it. Compaction can lead to disturbances in the backfill layers and potentially compromise water quality.

The entire construction process took about two weeks of work and patience to allow the cement and plaster to finish curing. As soon as the spring was ready, people got the okay from their local field officers to fetch water.

We officially handed over the spring to mark the community's ownership of the water point. Happiness, thanksgiving, and appreciation were the order of the day, flowing in all directions.

"Arthur, the village elder, spearheaded the handing-over session. He thanked the partners for their great work and the entire community for raising the local resources needed for the construction process. He closed the session with a word of prayer, thanking God for the successful implementation process," said Field Officer Rachael Dorcus.

Training on Health, Hygiene, and More

Together with the community, we found their preferred date for training while considering other community calendar events, such as the agricultural season and social events. We requested a representative group of community members to attend training and relay the information learned to the rest of their family and friends.

When the day arrived, facilitators, Rachael and Samuel deployed to the site to lead the event. 23 people attended the training, including 14 women and nine men.

We covered several topics, including community participation in the project, leadership and governance, personal and environmental hygiene, water handling and treatment, spring maintenance, dental hygiene, the ten steps of handwashing, disease prevention, and how to make and use handwashing stations.

During the leadership and governance session, we held an election for the newly formed water user committee leaders, who will oversee the maintenance of the spring. We also brainstormed income-generating activities. Community members can now start a group savings account for any future minor repairs to the spring and a cooperative lending group, enabling them to develop small businesses.

The soap-making session was lively. The participants were taken through the steps in the process, and the participants asked questions. The facilitator encouraged them that the knowledge could help them earn a living if they took it seriously.

"We have been enhanced on the importance of having access to clean and safe water and on how to keep our environment and personal hygiene standards. Information gathered will allow me to improve on areas I was lagging behind so as to be able to live a healthy life," said 48-year-old farmer Philip Omega.

Philip collecting water.


This project required a substantial collaboration between our staff, our in-country teams, and the community members themselves. When an issue arises concerning the spring, the water user committee is equipped with the necessary skills to rectify the problem and ensure the water point works appropriately. However, if the issue is beyond their capabilities, they can contact their local field officers to assist them.

Also, we will continue to offer them unmatchable support as a part of our monitoring and maintenance program. We walk with each community, problem-solving together when they face challenges with functionality, seasonality, or water quality. Together, all these components help us strive for enduring access to reliable, clean, and safe water for this community.

With your contribution, one more piece has been added to a large puzzle of water projects. In our target areas, we’re working toward complete coverage of reliable, maintained water sources within a 30-minute round trip for each community, household, school, and health center. With this in mind, search through our upcoming projects to see which community you can help next!

Thank you for making all of this possible!

December, 2022: Kwambiha Community Spring Protection Underway!

A severe clean water shortage in Kwambiha Community drains people’s time, energy, and health. Thanks to your generosity, we’re working to install a clean water point and much more.

Get to know this community through the introduction and pictures we’ve posted, and read about this water, sanitation, and hygiene project. We look forward to reaching out with more good news!

Project Photos

Project Type

Springs are water sources that come from deep underground, where the water is filtered through natural layers until it is clean enough to drink. Once the water pushes through the surface of the Earth, however, outside elements like waste and runoff can contaminate the water quickly. We protect spring sources from contamination with a simple waterproof cement structure surrounding layers of clay, stone, and soil. This construction channels the spring’s water through a discharge pipe, making water collection easier, faster, and cleaner. Each spring protection also includes a chlorine dispenser at the waterpoint so community members can be assured that the water they are drinking is entirely safe. Learn more here!

A Year Later: "We now find it easy to fetch water."

April, 2024

A year ago, your generous donation helped the Kwambiha Community in Kenya access clean water – creating a life-changing moment for Eugene. Thank you!

Keeping The Water Promise

There's an incredible community of monthly donors who have come alongside you in supporting clean water in Kwambiha Community 2.

This giving community supports ongoing sustainability programs that help Kwambiha Community 2 maintain access to safe, reliable water. Together, they keep The Water Promise.

We’re confident you'll love joining this world-changing group committed to sustainability!

Eugene, 14, recalled what life was like in the Kwambiha Community before the community’s spring was protected last year.

“This is the main source of water in this community. For many years, we used to find difficulty in accessing the water point due to [the] lack of [a] staircase. We were forced to step on mud and water so as to get to the collection point. On several occasions, people used to get injured, forcing them to seek medical attention at the nearby dispensary. Water from the spring was not safe for use as the catchment area had been exposed to contamination, thus endangering the health of its users. Not once, not twice, we heard of community members having been diagnosed with typhoid,” said Eugene.

Collecting water is now much simpler and safer for Eugene and the other community members in Kwambiha.

“Accessibility to the collection area has been improved due to [the] installation of the staircase. We now find it easy to fetch water. The catchment area has been protected. We are now guaranteed clean, safe water for use. This has led to a reduction in cases of infections related to water. This will allow the community members [to] live a healthy life,” Eugene continued.

Having ready access to water from the spring has made a difference for Eugene, allowing him to begin building a brighter future.

"Just after completion of the spring, I was able to have ample time for my studies. My end exams were exemplary, allowing me [to] join Malava Boys High School for my secondary education. I look forward to registering positive results at the end of my secondary education hoping to join the university for a teaching program," concluded Eugene.

Eugene (left) collects water with his friend from the protected spring.

Navigating through intense dry spells, performing preventative maintenance, conducting quality repairs when needed and continuing to assist community leaders to manage water points are all normal parts of keeping projects sustainable. The Water Promise community supports ongoing sustainability programs that help Kwambiha Community 2 maintain access to safe, reliable water.

We’d love for you to join this world-changing group committed to sustainability.

The most impactful way to continue your support of Kwambiha Community 2 – and hundreds of other places just like this – is by joining our community of monthly givers.

Your monthly giving will help provide clean water, every month... keeping The Water Promise.


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