Project Status

Project Type:  Protected Spring

Regional Program: Western Kenya WaSH Program

Impact: 140 Served

Project Phase:  In Service - Feb 2023

Functionality Status:  Functional

Last Checkup: 10/04/2023

Project Features

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The 140 people of Lishundu are subsistence farmers who eat what they grow and don't make much money, which is why their constant water-related illnesses are so devastating. When they are sick with typhoid or cholera, they can't work their farms, leaving them both without food and without any money for treatment.

When we visited, frog eggs floated on the entire surface of the upper pool where water drains down a piece of iron sheeting and into people's containers. Surrounding the spring are maize fields that use fertilizers, which leach into the water when it rains. And as the name implies, during Kenya's rainy season, this extra layer of contamination happens a lot.

Those we interviewed in Lishundu told us that the children of the community are the ones most affected by drinking the contaminated water.

“Children require more water (by weight) than adults, so their exposure to waterborne pathogens is much higher. Diarrhoeal diseases cause dehydration in children much faster than in adults. Children are more likely to develop severe infections and experience complications during recovery due to their small body size and their developing immune systems, which provide little natural immunity or resistance.” - UNICEF

"I always miss going to school during the rainy season," said 12-year-old Fred P (shown in the above photo). "We are affected by waterborne diseases, so I do spend much of my time at home as opposed to [at] schooling because of waterborne ailments."

"When it rains, we can't collect water for drinking because a lot of decomposition normally takes place [in the water], rendering [the] water dirty," said Grace Avomba, a 62-year-old farmer (in the below photo). "Besides that, we waste a lot of firewood in boiling water so as to be safe for drinking."

Protecting Fred Avomba Spring will curb the sources of contamination that are holding the people of Lishundu back from flourishing and allow them to finally start saving some money.

What We Can Do:

Spring Protection

Protecting the spring will help provide access to cleaner and safer water and reduce the time people have to spend to fetch it. Construction will keep surface runoff and other contaminants out of the water. With the community’s high involvement in the process, there should be a good sense of responsibility and ownership for the new clean water source.

Fetching water is a task predominantly carried out by women and young girls. Protecting the spring and offering training and support will, therefore, help empower the female members of the community by freeing up more of their time and energy to engage and invest in income-generating activities and their education.

Training on Health, Hygiene and More

To hold trainings during the pandemic, we work closely with both community leaders and the local government to approve small groups to attend training. We ask community leaders to invite a select yet representative group of people to attend training who will then act as ambassadors to the rest of the community to share what they learn. We also communicate our expectations of physical distancing and wearing masks for all who choose to attend.

The training will focus on improved hygiene, health, and sanitation habits in this community. With the community’s input, we will identify key leverage points where they can alter their practices at the personal, household, and community levels to affect change. This training will help to ensure participants have the knowledge they need about healthy practices and their importance to make the most of their water point as soon as water is flowing.

Our team of facilitators will use a variety of methods to train community members. Some of these methods include participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation, asset-based community development, group discussions, handouts, and demonstrations at the spring.

One of the most important issues we plan to cover is the handling, storage, and treatment of water. Having a clean water source will be extremely helpful, but it is useless if water gets contaminated by the time it is consumed. We and the community strongly believe that all of these components will work together to improve living standards here, which will help to unlock the potential for these community members to live better, healthier lives.

We will then conduct a small series of follow-up trainings before transitioning to our regularly scheduled support visits throughout the year.

Training will result in the formation of a water user committee, elected by their peers, that will oversee the operations and maintenance of the spring. The committee will enforce proper behavior around the spring and delegate tasks that will help preserve the site, such as building a fence and digging proper drainage channels. The fence will keep out destructive animals and unwanted waste, and the drainage will keep the area’s mosquito population at a minimum.

Project Updates

February, 2023: Lishundu Community Spring Protection Complete!

Lishundu Community now has access to clean water! We transformed Fred Avomba Spring into a flowing source of naturally filtered water thanks to your donation. Our team also trained the community on improved sanitation and hygiene practices. Together, these components will unlock the opportunity for community members to live better, healthier lives.

"Since [I now have access] to reliable, safe water, I will not be prone to waterborne ailments as [I] used to be before," said Grace Avomba, whom we spoke to during our first visit to Lishundu. "This translates to good health, and this will great help me channel my resources to constructive development rather than wasting them in seeking medication for waterborne ailments."

Grace at the new spring.

But before she dedicates time to development, Grace has to focus on healing. "The very first goal is good health," Grace said. "I have been a victim of waterborne diseases for [a] long [time from the] use of water fetched from this water point. Because [this new point] has been constructed, curbing the agent of contamination reaching the water source, we will be of good health."

Children were just as excited as adults about the new waterpoint.

"I will not be missing going to school anymore [from] consuming unsafe water, which [in the] long run will lead to contracting waterborne diseases, making one spend most of their precious time at home or at local health centers for medication," said 13-year-old Fred P. (whom we also interviewed during our first visit).

Fred at the spring.

"[The] long queues [we] witnessed before and [the] poor way of capturing water used to make one take a lot of his/her time queuing for water, but now things have changed," Fred continued. "Fetching water is very easy, thus giving me [ample] time to play with my friends."

Preparing for Spring Protection

Community members worked together to source and carry all locally available construction materials to the spring. These included bricks, sand, stones, and fencing poles. Some people also chiseled away at large rocks to break them down into gravel. Because people have to carry most items by hand, the material-collection process can take anywhere from a few weeks to months.

When the community was ready, we sent a lorry to deliver the remaining construction materials, including cement, plastic tarps, and hardware. Then, our construction artisan and field officers deployed to the spring to begin work. Individual households provided meals throughout each day to sustain the work team.

From Open Source to Protected Spring: A Step-by-Step Process

First, we cleared and excavated the spring area. Next, we dug a drainage channel below the spring and several runoff diversion channels above and around the spring. These help to divert surface contaminants away.

To ensure community members could still access water throughout the construction process, we also dug temporary channels from the spring's eye around the construction site. This allowed water to flow without disrupting community members' tasks or the construction work. Excavation created space for setting the spring's foundation, made of thick plastic tarp, wire mesh, concrete, and waterproof cement.

After establishing the base, we started brickwork to build the headwall, wing walls, and stairs. Once the walls had grown tall enough, we began one of the most crucial steps: setting the discharge pipe. The discharge pipe needs to be positioned low enough in the headwall so the water level never rises above the spring's eye, yet high enough to allow room for the average jerrycan (a 20-liter container) to sit beneath the pipe without making contact.

If we place the discharge pipe too high above the spring's eye, backpressure could force water to emerge elsewhere. Too low, and community members would not be able to access the water easily. We embedded the pipe using clay (or mortar when clay is in short supply) and placed it at an incline to ensure water flows in the right direction.

In coordination with brickwork, we pitched stones on both sides of the spring's drainage channel. We then cemented and plastered each stone, forming the rub walls. These walls discourage people and animals from standing in that area, which could cause soil erosion and a clogged drainage area.

We then cemented and plastered both sides of the headwall and wing walls. These finishing layers reinforce the brickwork and prevent water in the reservoir from seeping through the walls. In turn, enough pressure builds in the reservoir box to push water out through the discharge pipe.

As the headwall and wing walls cured, we cemented and plastered the stairs and installed four tiles beneath the discharge pipe. The tiles protect the concrete from the falling water's erosive force while beautifying the spring and facilitating easy cleaning of the spring floor.

The final stage of construction is backfilling the reservoir box behind the discharge pipe. We cleared the collection box of any debris that may have fallen during construction. Then we redirected the temporary diversion channels back into the reservoir box, channeling water into this area for the first time. We closed off all of the other exits to start forcing water through the discharge pipe only.

We filled up the reservoir area with the large, clean stones community members had gathered, arranging them in layers like a well-fitting puzzle. We covered the rocks with a thick plastic tarp to minimize potential contamination sources, then piled enough dirt on top to compensate for future settling.

Community members transplanted grass onto the backfilled soil to help prevent erosion. Finally, the collection area was fenced to discourage any person or animal from walking on it. Compaction can lead to disturbances in the backfill layers and potentially compromise water quality.

The entire construction process took about two weeks of work and patience to allow the cement and plaster to finish curing. As soon as the spring was ready, people got the okay from their local field officers to fetch water.

We officially handed over the spring to mark the community's ownership of the water point. Happiness, thanksgiving, and appreciation were the order of the day, flowing in all directions.

"The community members had convened the meeting at the water point just to thank God and the donors who sacrificed their resources to ensure that their spring was constructed," said our field officer Jonathan. "In attendance was the area village elder and the community members who have been advocating for [the] preservation of water points."

Training on Health, Hygiene, and More

Together with the community, we found their preferred date for training while considering other community calendar events, such as the agricultural season and social events. We requested a representative group of community members to attend training and relay the information learned to the rest of their family and friends.

When the day arrived, facilitators Jonathan, Wilson, and Nelly deployed to the site to lead the event. 18 people attended the training, including 13 women and five men. We held the training at a community member's homestead.

We covered several topics, including community participation in the project, leadership and governance, personal and environmental hygiene, water handling and treatment, spring maintenance, dental hygiene, the ten steps of handwashing, disease prevention, and how to make and use handwashing stations.

Handwashing lesson.

During the leadership and governance session, we held an election for the newly formed water user committee leaders, who will oversee the maintenance of the spring. We also brainstormed income-generating activities. Community members can now start a group savings account for any future minor repairs to the spring and a cooperative lending group, enabling them to develop small businesses.

The participants' favorite topic was soap-making. When trainer Nelly was listing the soap ingredients, she mentioned dye. As we left ingredients for community members to use for making their own soap after the training, one of the attendees asked whether the dye was food coloring. Trainer Nelly said it was dye made for soap and other industrial uses and told everyone not to use it in their food, which made everyone laugh.

"Personally, as a business vendor, soap-making is not something new to me," said 28-year-old Peter Sikirwa. "I used to make it before, but this one was more quality than the one I used to make. The knowledge on soap-making and hygiene in general will help not only me alone, but even the rest of this community on hygiene and sanitation practices in this area."


The participants also shared a discussion about dental hygiene. Since inflation has heightened prices for things like toothbrushes and toothpaste in Kenya, one participant advised her fellow community members of a vendor at a local market who has started selling toothpaste in bulk, which costs less per unit and lasts longer. Everyone thanked her for this advice, saying it would make keeping their families' teeth clean much easier.

Dental hygiene.


This project required a substantial collaboration between our staff, our in-country teams, and the community members themselves. When an issue arises concerning the spring, the water user committee is equipped with the necessary skills to rectify the problem and ensure the water point works appropriately. However, if the issue is beyond their capabilities, they can contact their local field officers to assist them.

Also, we will continue to offer them unmatchable support as a part of our monitoring and maintenance program. We walk with each community, problem-solving together when they face challenges with functionality, seasonality, or water quality. Together, all these components help us strive for enduring access to reliable, clean, and safe water for this community.

With your contribution, one more piece has been added to a large puzzle of water projects. In our target areas, we’re working toward complete coverage of reliable, maintained water sources within a 30-minute round trip for each community, household, school, and health center. With this in mind, search through our upcoming projects to see which community you can help next!

Thank you for making all of this possible!

January, 2023: Lishindu Community Spring Protection Underway!

A severe clean water shortage in Lishindu Community drains people’s time, energy, and health. Thanks to your generosity, we’re working to install a clean water point and much more.

Get to know this community through the introduction and pictures we’ve posted, and read about this water, sanitation, and hygiene project. We look forward to reaching out with more good news!

Project Photos

Project Type

Springs are water sources that come from deep underground, where the water is filtered through natural layers until it is clean enough to drink. Once the water pushes through the surface of the Earth, however, outside elements like waste and runoff can contaminate the water quickly. We protect spring sources from contamination with a simple waterproof cement structure surrounding layers of clay, stone, and soil. This construction channels the spring’s water through a discharge pipe, making water collection easier, faster, and cleaner. Each spring protection also includes a chlorine dispenser at the waterpoint so community members can be assured that the water they are drinking is entirely safe. Learn more here!


6 individual donor(s)