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The Water Project: Ulaani Kwa Katwa Community 1B -
The Water Project: Ulaani Kwa Katwa Community 1B -
The Water Project: Ulaani Kwa Katwa Community 1B -

Project Status

Project Type:  Dug Well and Hand Pump

Regional Program: Southeastern Kenya WaSH Program

Impact: 500 Served

Project Phase:  In Service - Oct 2012

Functionality Status:  Functional

Last Checkup: 09/24/2022

Project Features

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Community Profile

This project is being implemented by our partner African Sand Dam Foundation, and includes the construction of a hand-dug well as well as agriculural activities including terracing, tree planting and  the creation of a tree nursery and seed bank.

Below is unedited project information direct from our partner:



The group was formed in September 2011.It has a membership of 35 members 18 male and 17 females. The group is found in Kanyonga and Kanthuni villages, Ivinganzia sub location, Kanthuni location, Kanthuni division and Kathonzweni District. The total population for Ivinganzia sub location is 3053 with 1407 males and 1646 females.

The reasons behind the formation of the group were:

Water insecurity

The main water sources in the area are Rivers Kanyonga and Athi. Kanyonga River is situated 5 kilometres away from the community while River Athi is 9.5 kilometres away. It takes three hours to fetch water from River Kanyonga and 5-7 hours to get water from River Athi.

In order to access water from river Kanyonga one has to dig deep scoop holes of more than three feet deep. This is why it takes long. The water at this water point turns saline during the dry period. The main use of water from river Kanyonga is for livestock. Water is however available during the rainy season. Immediately after the rains end the water dries up leaving the community to fetch water from the River Athi.

Women and children bear the burden of fetching water. In the dry seasons of the year that is from August to October school going children have to miss school in order to offer support in the fetching of water. At the school the children are forced to come with water that is meant to cook for them. In most occasions the water brought to schools is not clean and thus there is a number of water borne diseases experienced in the schools. The immediate victims of water insecurity are the livestock that the farmers keep. Livestock keeping is the main livelihood pattern after agriculture. To the farmers the livestock act as source of assets that can be disposed off to meet immediate household needs such as food, school fees and even emergencies such as payment to access health services. During the drought/dry periods of the year most farmers lose their cattle because of lack of water and pasture.

Due to the lack of water in the area:

  • More time is spent in fetching water. Therefore more efforts and resources are underutilised thus leaving poverty lines in the area at a high rate.
  • Famine and drought. Most farmers depend on rain fed agriculture to grow crops. The lack of alternative methods for growing food has led to increased food insecurity in the area.
  • During the dry period of the year most farmers experience severe loss of animals. This is because the animals lack water for drinking. The livestock sometimes go for three days without water. This has affected their health and quality.
  • The tree planting program has also been affected. The lack of water has led to drying up of the trees that the farmers plant.


The main type of crops that the farmers grow includes maize, cowpeas, sorghum, pigeon peas and green grams.

The main challenges to improved farming include:

  • Increased incidence of pests and diseases. This has affected our harvests. The farmers do not harvest as required due to pre harvest looses.
  • The farmers also practise poor farming methods. Most of the farming methods that the farmer’s practise cannot enable the farmers to have sufficient harvest. The farmers grow maize and have reduced crop varieties. The farms have been massively eroded reducing the fertility rate of the soils thus giving low produce or harvest.
  • Lack of good seeds for planting. Frequent droughts have affected the ability of the community to preserve seeds for their planting needs. Due to this the farmers have reduced the size of land under farming and only plant reduced sizes of land.


The group is currently doing a tree planting program. They however lack enough skills and knowledge to plant the trees. The lack of water in the area has also reduced the number of trees that the community can plant in a season. Termite infestation is also a big challenge to the tree planting program.


The community seeks to create water security through the building of sand dams. The aim of having the sand dam is to improve the availability of water for farming and improved incomes for the community. The community’s objective is to engage in commercial farming where they will have pieces of farms where they can grow crops for sale and for consumption. Due to the improved water table along the areas where the sand dams have been built the group shall also have shallow wells that will be used to provide water for the farmers and the community at a small fee that will enable the group to generate income and have income for maintenance of the wells.

The community also seeks to have additional knowledge and skills that can empower them so as to be able to have resilience against the changing weather patterns in the area.

The community also seeks to establish and improve on their animal husbandry skills through the keeping of dairy goats. This program will help in the improvement of local livestock breeds that can produce more milk and fetch increased income from the sale of the animals.

The community plans to undertake a massive environmental conservation project through terrace digging in areas affected by soil erosion and pasture re-establishment along the river banks and farmers farms. They require seeds and tools that will enable them to terrace their lands and knowledge on how to do pasture establishment.

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Project Photos

Project Type

Dug Well and Hand Pump

Hand-dug wells are best suited for clay, sand, gravel and mixed soil ground formations. A large diameter well is dug by hand, and then lined with either bricks or concrete to prevent contamination and collapse of the well. Once a water table is hit, the well is capped and a hand-pump is installed – creating a complete and enclosed water system.